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By P; M. HALE. 

A Compilation from the Botanical and Geological Re- 
ports of Drs. Curtis, Emmons and Kerr; to which 
are added information obtained from the 
Census Bureau and Accurate 
Reports from the sev- 
eral Counties. 







Copyright, 1883. 


*tw yo*b; 



So abundantly supplied were the older States with na- 
tive timber growth, that questions relating to its perma- 
nence appear not to have suggested investigation thfOugh 
a long period. In new States and in the Territories the 
absence of forests has been felt severely, and the supply 
of their needs added to home waste has made the forestry 
question prominent and of practical importance. Sup- 
plies have been found scarce, and prices have advanced 
to a degree that is sensibly felt by all classes of the 

The forest wealth of North Carolina, it is believed, ex- 
ceeds that of any State. Little was known of it, except 
to Botanists, until a very recent date. The exhibition of 
woods at the Atlanta Exposition by the State Department 
of Agriculture and by the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company attracted universal attention and admira- 
tion, and made it plain that the time is at hand when the 
forests of North Carolina, if properly worked, will yield 
larger income than all her beds of gold. Frequent 
inquiry from all sections of the country followed, and the 
exhibition made by the Richmond and Danville Company 

p"> at the New England Manufacturers' aiyl Mechanics' 

q-j Institute has stimulated the public desire for information. 

<•— The publisher hopes that this volume may supply it. 

In 1860, the State published as part of the Geological 

«^C Survey, then under the direction of the distinguished Dr. 


Emmons of New York, a small edition of a volume known 
to Botanists in this country and in Europe as Dr. Curtis's 
Woody Plants of North Carolina. The publication 
placed North Carolina among the foremost of the States 
in respect to the completeness as well as the scientific ac- 
curacy of the knowledge of her singular botanical wealth, 
which had engaged the Interest and study of the most 
famous European and American Botanists for nearly one 
hun<fred years. Its circulation was confined to scientists, 
and the volume has been long out of print. It is repro- 
duced here in full. 

To these Reports of Dr. Emmons and Dr. Curtis have 
been added the later observation^ made by Dr. W. C. 
Kerr, State Geologist since the death of Dr. Emmons, 
and now Geologist in charge of the Southern Division of 
the United States Geological Survey ; such information 
as was obtained in 1880 by the Census Department for 
publication in the Census Reports when printed ; and, 
perhaps more satisfactory than these, reports from t^e sev- 
eral counties of the State obtained during the present 
year. These are entirely trustworthy. An exceptionally 
large acquaintance throughout the State, and access for 
this purpose to the lists of correspondents of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, have made it comparatively easy 
for the publisher to obtain accurate information. The 
initials at the end of each county letter will be readily 
recognized as those of citizens well-informed and reliable, 
and with no private ends to serve. 

An accurate map of the State, on which are traced all 
its railroad routes, will be of use to those whom business 
or pleasure may attract to North Carolina. 

Raleigh, Dec. 20, 1882. 


PART I.— The Woody Plants. 

Dr. Emmons's Report, . . . . . • 11 

Index to Woody Plants, 15 

Dr. Curtis's Preface, 19 

Trees of North Carolina, . . . . .35 

Shrubs of North Carolina, . . . . 134 

Vines of North Carolina, . . . . .178 

Tabular View of Species, 194 

Minor Plants, 197 

PART II.— Forest Statistics. 

Forests of North Carolina, . . . . 201 

Farms of North Carolina, ..... 255 
Population of North Carolina, .... 258 

PART III.— Facilities for Travel. 

The Railroads of North Carolina, .... 263 
Map of North Carolina. 







North Carolina 






Rev. M. A. CURTIS, D. D. 


RALEIGH, June 1st, 1860. 

To His Excellency, John W. Ellis, 

Governor of North Carolina : 

Sir : I herewith transmit the Report of the Rev. 
M. A. Curtis, D. D., upon the Woody Plants of 
this State. 

The value of this Report is greatly enhanced by 
the fact that it embodies the labor of more than 
twenty years. Dr. Curtis, in reviewing the whole 
subject with a view to a publication of the results of 
his labor, has felt constrained to furnish descriptions 
of only the most conspicuous and important plants 
indigenous to the State ; and of the less important 
ones a Catalogue simply, noticing^ with each species, 
its geographical range in the State, and, where desir- 
able, its economical or medicinal uses. 

Notwithstanding the latter portion of his Report 
may thus appear to consist chiefly of technical names, 
and thus be of no general practical use, it will be 
regarded by the scientific public as a contribution of 
great value, not merely for its indication of the veg- 
etable productions of this State, but also as contain- 
ing a large amount of information not elsewhere to 
be found. The position of this State is such that it 


forms the north and south limits of many interesting 
productions in Natural History, belonging both to 
the vegetable and animal kingdoms ; and it has been 
regarded an important work to fix definitely the true 
north and south boundaries of species belonging to 
these kingdoms. 

In view of these considerations, together with 
many others which will, no doubt, be suggested on 
reflection upon the whole subject, it is hoped that 
your Excellency, with the Honorable Gentlemen 
constituting the Literary Board, will give pub- 
licity to the labors of Dr. Curtis, who has consented 
to assist me in this part of the State Survey. 
I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 


State Geologist. 

Dr. Curtis to the State Geologist. 

To Prof. E. Emmons, G-eologist 

of the State of North Carolina : 

Dear Sir : In compliance with your request, that 
I would furnish, in connection with your general 
Survey of the natural resources of the State, an ac- 
count of its vegetable productions, I have prepared 
the following paper upon the Woody Plants of 


North Carolina. I have brought these together in 
one view, because they are the most important, the 
best known, and can be more intelligibly arranged 
for general use, than upon a plan strictly scientific. 
Botanists will of course find fault with it ; but as 
my sole purpose herein is to make this essay of pop- 
ular service, and as intelligible as possible to those 
who know nothing of systems and would not take 
the time or trouble to master a scientific treatise, I 
have adopted the present course as the most likely 
one that occurred to me to accomplish the end pro- 
posed. It has its difficulties, as you will readily see, 
but you will at the same time confess, I think, that, 
though it might be better done, the end could not be 
so well attained but by some such arrangement. I 
must therefore crave your indulgence for this de- 
parture from established usage in this first portion 
of my Report. 

I have felt somewhat hampered by the limits to 
which I was restricted, and, as it is, have unavoid- 
ably overrun them ; but I hope', nevertheless, that 
nothing essential has been often omitted, either in 
the descriptions, or in noticing the valuable uses, of 
the various Trees, Shrubs, and Vines of the State. 
In instances where the plant is well known and 
needed no discrimination from similar or kindred 
species, I have omitted all description, as being in 
such cases superfluous. But whenever one is less 
known, or may be easily confounded with others, I 
have endeavored to present all the distinctive char- 


acters by which it may be discriminated from them. 
How far I have been successful must be left to the 
proof by trial ; but I am pretty confident that a per- 
son wholly unpracticed in this kind of investigation 
can, by means of the Tabular View given at the end 
of this Report, very soon learn to discriminate and 
find the name of most of the Woody Plants of the 

I will state in conclusion, what you were not be- 
fore aware of, that this Report is one of the fruits of 
your long continued service in the field of Science. 
My first knowledge of the elementary terms of Bot- 
any was derived from yourself and your distinguished 
Preceptor, Prof. Eaton, at the beginning of your 
public career. Though I was then too young to be 
admitted to your course of instruction, an impulse 
was then given which never abated, and now, forty 
years afterward, returns back to you with this hum- 
ble offering. The contribution is, therefore, most 
appropriately put into your hands by 

Your friend and servant, 



[N. B. Names in Italics are synonymes of others in the Index.] 



Alder, 174 

Bursting Heart, . . . 165 

" Dwarf, . 


Butternut, . . . 


" White, . 


Button Bush, . . 


(Andromeda,) . 


Button Wood, . . 


Apple, Crab, . 


Cabbage Tree, . . 


Arbor Vitse, 


Calico Bush, 


Arrow Wood, . 




(Ascyrura,) . 


Canoe Wood, . . 


Ash, .... 


(Cassandra,) . . 


" Mountain, 


Catalpa, . . . 


" Prickly, . 

148, 166 

Cedar, Red, . . . 


" Stinking, 


" White, . . 


Aspen,. . . 


Cherry, .... 


(Atragene,) . 


Chestnut, . . 


Balsam, . . 


Cbina Root, 


Bamboo, . . . 


China Tree, . 






Bass Wood, 


Choke Berry, . 


Bav, Loblollv, 


(Cocculus,) . . 


" Red, . 


Coffee Tree, . 


" Sweet, . 


Coral Berry, 


Bearberry, . 


(Cornus,) . . 


Bear Grass, . 


Cotton Tree, . 


Beech, . . 


Cranberry, . . 


* Water, 


Creeper, Virginia, 


Birch, . . . 


Cross Vine, . . 




Cucumber Tree, 


Blackberry, . 


Currant, . . . 


Bladder Nut, 

. 173 

Cypress, . . . 

51- 53 

Box, . . . 

. 172 

(Darby a,) . . 


Box Elder, . 

. 89 

(Decumaria,) . 


Box Wood, . 

. 101 

Deer Berry, 



. 80 

Devil's Shoe Strini 



(Buckley a,) 

. 169 

Devil Wood, . 


Buckthorn, . 

. 109 

Dew Berry, . . 

. 144 


a , 

. 150 

Dog Wood, . . 

. 101 

Buffalo Tree, . 

. 154 

" Striped, 

. 88 

Burning Bush, 

. 165 

Eglantine, . . 

. 145 



Elder,. . . 

" Marsh, 
Elm, . . . 
Fern, Sweet, 
Fetter Bush, 
Fever Bush, 
Fir, . . . 
Fish Wood, . 
Flowering Moss, 
Fringe Tree, 
Gall Berry, 
Goose Berry, 
Goose Berry, 
Grapes, - . . 
Groundsel, . 
Gum, Black, 

" Sweet, 
Hackberry, . 
Hardhack, . 
Hazel Nut, . 
Hazel, Witch, 
Haw, Black, 

" Red, . 
Heath, False, 
Hemlock Spruce, 
Hickory, . . 
Hobble Bush, 
Holly,. . . 

" Dahoon, 
Hop Tree, . 
Hornbeam, . 


(Ilex,) . . 
Indian Physic, 
Ink Berry, . 
Iron Wood, . 
(Itea,) . . 
Ivy, ... 
Jessamine, . 
Juniper, . . 
Laurel, . . 













Laurel, Big, 
" Dog,. . 
" High Bush 
" Sheep, . 

Leather Wood, 


Lime Tree, . . 

Linden, . . . 

Linn Tree, . . 

Locust, . . . 
" Honey, . 

Loosestrife, . . 

Magnolia, . . 

Maple, . . . 

Meadow Sweet, 

Mistletoe, . . 

Mock Orange, . 

Moonseed, . . 

Moose Wood, . 

Mountain Tea, 

Mulberry, . . 
" Bermuda, 

Myrtle, Sand, . 
" Wax, . 

Nettle Tree, . . 

New Jersey Tea, 

Nine Bark, . . 


Oil Nut, . . . 

Old Man's Beard, 

Palmetto, . . 

Papaw, . . . 

Pellitory, . . 

Pepper Bush, . 
" Mountain, 
" Sweet, . 

Pepperidge, . . 


Pines, .... 

Planer Tree, . 

Plane Tree, . . 

Plums, . . . 

Poison Oak, 

Poison Vine, 

(Polygonella,) , 

Pond Bush, . . 

Poplar, . . . 



82- 83 


85- 89 

96, 164 


53- 71 


35- 46 

93- 94 





Poplar, Carolina, . . 


Sweet Brier, .... 145 

Pride of India, . . . 


Sweet Peru, 




Sweet Leaf, 


Queen of the Meadow, . 


Sweet Shrub, 


Raspberry, .... 


Sycamore, . 




Syringa, . . 


Red Bud, .... 


Tangle Legs, 


Red Root, .... 


Thorn Tree, 




Toothache Tree, . 


Rock Rose, .... 


Trailing Arbutus, 




Trumpet Plower, 


(Sageretia,) .... 


Tulip Tree, . . 


Sarsaparilla, . . . 


Tupelo, . . . 


Big, . . 


Umbrella Tree, 


Sassafras, .... 


Virginia Creeper, 


Service Tree, . . . 


Virgin's Bower, 


Sheep Berry, . . . 


Wahoo, . . . 




Walnut, . . . 

76- 78 

Snow Drop Tree, ' . 


Wax Work, . 


Sorrel Tree, . . . 


Wayfarer's Tree, 


Sour Wood, . . . 


White Wood, . 


Spanish Bayonet, 

. 153 

Wicky, . . . 


Sparkleberry, . . . 

. 142 

Wild Allspice, 

. 149 

Spice Bush, . . . 

. 149 

Wild Ginger, . 

. 192 


. 48- 49 

i Willow, . . . 

. 123-124 

Stagger Bush, . . . 

. 155 

1 Wine Tree, . 

. 116 

(Stilliugia,) .... 

. 165 


. 100 

Strawberry Bush, 

. 165 


. 152 

(Stuartia,) .... 

. 166 

Woodbine, . . 

. 185 


. 150-151 

Yellow Root, . 

. 168 

" Mountain, 

. 116 

Yellow Wood, . 

. 109 

Yopon, . 

. 98 


The Plants of North Carolina have long been con- 
sidered by Botanists as unsurpassed in variety and 
beauty by those of any States of the Union, except- 
ing a few of those which lie upon the Gulf of Mexico. 
The Flora of this State should properly be regarded 
as forming the transition between the Northern and 
Southern Botanical Districts, as it is within our 
boundaries that many of the Northern plants have 
their Southern limits, and some of those which form 
a peculiar feature of Southern vegetation commence. 
Of the latter species are the Pond Pine, several 
Magnolias, Palmetto, &c. There is still another cir- 
cumstance which gives a much greater variety to our 
vegetation than could be derived from mere differ- 
ence of 2 1 degrees of latitude between her Northern 
and Southern boundaries. The Mountains on the 
Western border of the State are several hundred feet 
higher than any others in the Union, so that the dif- 
ference of elevation between these and our sea-coast 
occasions a difference of vegetation equal to that of 
10 or 12 degrees of latitude. Thus upon the higher 
summits are found species such as belong to the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire, those in the 
N. E. part of New York, and to Canada. The inter- 


veiling ranges of Virginia and Pennsylvania partake 
in part only of the same peculiarities, but the greater 
elevation of some of our summits permits the growth 
of some species which are unknown between them 
and the Northern regions above mentioned. 

In the distribution of Plants over the State we 
have three distinctly marked Districts, as well char- 
acterized by their Flora as by their Geological feat- 
ures. As in the Geology of the State the peculiar 
formation of one District may penetrate, overlie, or 
underlie that of another, yet the predominating char- 
acters of each be sufficiently marked and striking to 
arrest the notice of the most casual observer; so it 
is with the vegetation of these Districts. The anal- 
ogy of distribution between the objects of these sci- 
ences may be extended still further. For as, in the 
one case, we often meet with misplaced Rocks, so, in 
the other, the Botanist is sometimes surprised by 
meeting with species of Plants quite out of their 
proper range, and for whose location it is not always 
easy to account. Thus the Cranberry, an inhabitant 
of elevated regions and not uncommon in our Moun- 
tain Marshes, is also found, to a limited extent, in 
the low lands of the Northeastern part of the State. 
The beautiful Calico Bush, or Ivy, rarely found but 
in rocky regions, as in the mountains or along the 
rocky banks of watercourses, occurs abundantly in 
the Dismal Swamp, especially along the line of the 
Canal. The pretty Roanoke Bell (Mertensia Virgin- 
ica), a native of the Mountains, is scattered along 


the banks of the river from which, in this State, it 
derives its name, as far down as Halifax County. In 
this last case, and perhaps in some others, we may 
suppose that seeds have been carried down by 
streams which head in the mountains. But in regard 
to some species, as the fragrant Wintergreen or Moun- 
tain Tea (Gaultheria procumbens), they sometimes 
attain such a wide distribution in their new (?) posi- 
tion, and at such a distance from the larger streams, 
as to suggest a doubt whether they are not truly in- 
digenous to the spots they occupy. Still, as above 
remarked, the general aspect of the vegetation of 
either region is no more affected by these rare excep- 
tions, than is that of the geological features of a dis- 
trict by a few scattering bowlders. The most care- 
less observer cannot fail to observe how essentially 
the vegetation changes, as he passes from our sandy 
low country into the red clay region of the middle 
country. The difference is as remarkable as that of 
the soils. The absence of the Long-leaf Pine marks 
the transition to the Middle Botanical District. A 
line drawn from Blakely on the Roanoke, in the 
direction of Cheraw on the Pee Dee, will very nearly 
indicate the Western termination of the Lower Dis- 
trict ; although the actual boundary limit between 
these two is as irregular as a line of sea-coast, which, 
very probably, this once was. Occasionally, as before 
hinted, the vegetation of the Lower District is found 
considerably overlapping that of the Middle, and the 
Long-leaf Pine to occur some miles within the red 


clay region. Thus. a patch of this tree may be seen 
on the gravelly hills eight miles west of Wadesboro, 
which is probably the most western limit of its ap- 
pearance within the State. Not unfrequently also 
there are found small portions of land in the Middle 
District, very much resembling the savannas and low 
pine woods of the Lower, the soil being sandy, turfed 
with coarse grasses, and shaded with Short-leaved 
Pines. In these situations, which are met with as 
far west as Henderson County, will always be found 
some species of plants which, except in such places, 
are peculiar to the Lower District. 

The Lower District might easily be divided into 
three Botanical regions, each characterized by certain 
species of plants of well defined range. These will 
be only indicated, as details are unnecessary to the 
purpose in view. The first region includes only the 
line of sea-coast which produces maritime species, or 
those which grow only within the influence of a 
saline atmosphere. These are not numerous, and the 
only ones of much note are the Live Oak and Pal- 
metto. The second region extends inland as far as 
the Long Moss is produced. The third, from thence 
to the Middle District. 

The Middle District reaches westward to the base 
of the Blue Ridge. In this the forests are character- 
ized by a predominance of Oaks, as the Lower is by 
the presence of Pines. It is far less productive of 
rare and peculiar plants than either of the others. 
Though it furnishes some that do not belong to the 


others, the great majority of them are common over 
a large portion of the Southern and Middle States. 
I cannot recall any one species which can be con- 
sidered as giving a character to this district distinct 
from that of the States lying north or south of it. 
There are, indeed, a few of the smaller plants which 
are not found elsewhere, but these are so rare and 
inconspicuous as not to form a noticeable feature in 
the vegetation of this district. 

The Upper or Mountain District is as peculiar and 
interesting in its vegetable products as it is attractive 
in its scenery. The ascent of every hundred feet 
presents new and varying species, until we reach the 
region of the dark and sombre Firs, where we have 
a vegetation almost entirely Northern. There is also 
a striking peculiarity in the vegetation of these 
higher regions, which can rarely fail to arrest the 
eye of a visitor from the Lower or Middle Districts, 
in the profusion of graceful Ferns and delicate Mosses 
that cover the earth, and of numerous and various 
colored Lichens that clothe the rocks and trees. 
These, for the most part, are identical with species 
found in the mountains of the Northern States, and 
many are common to similar situations in the Old 
World ; though there are some which seem to be 
confined to our own mountains. In these orders of 
Plants this district abounds much beyond the product 
of all the rest of the State, and he who delights in 
their study could scarcely find elsewhere a more lux- 
uriant field for observation or collection. But not 


less peculiar, and what is still more likely to attract 
the attention of the common observer, are the variety 
and beauty of stately trees and* ornamental shrubs, 
which are found in no other part of the State. In- 
deed, in all the elements which render forest scenery 
attractive, we may safely say that no portion of the 
Eastern United States presents them in happier com- 
bination, in greater perfection, or in larger extent, 
than do the mountains of North Carolina, especially 
in the counties of Yancey, Buncombe, Burke, and 

From the great elevation and extent of our Moun- 
tains, supplying many forms of plants proper to much 
higher latitudes, besides a large number peculiar to 
the Southern ranges, it is not surprising that these 
Mountains attracted the early attention of Botanists, 
and that they have continued to be visited by a 
larger number of them than has any other portion 
of our country. A brief account of these Botanists, 
and of those who have examined other parts of the 
State, will be an appropriate introduction to the 
accompanying list and description of the objects by 
them first brought to public notice. 

William Baetram, of Philadelphia, visited the 
Mountains of Cherokee in 1776. He also passed 
through the lower section of the State. An interest- 
ing volume of his "Travels" was published in Lon- 
don, but the book has been long out of print. 

Andre Michaux, under the patronage of the 
French government, visited the same region in 1787. 


In the following year he explored twice the Moun- 
tains of Burke and Yancey counties, carrying away 
in the Fall 2,500 specimens of trees, shrubs, and 
plants. In 1794 he again visited the same region, 
ascending Linville, Black, Yellow, Roan, Grandfather, 
and Table Mountains. In the following }~ear he 
twice passed over portions of the same. Traditions 
of this indefatigable and eccentric traveler are cur- 
rent in the western counties, and persons are prob- 
ably yet living who remember him. The late Col. 
Davenport, of the Yadkin Valley, was his guide on 
several occasions. A very large and interesting por- 
tion of our mountain species was first discovered by 
Michaux, and published in his " Flora Boreali-Ame- 
ricana," which is yet a standard and classical work 
in Botanical literature. With rare exceptions his 
species have been since identified by other explorers. 
Mr. Feaser, a Scotchman, made botanical collec- 
tions in our mountains between the years 1787 and 
1789. Under the patronage of the Russian govern- 
ment he explored them again in 1799, accompanied 
by his eldest son. It was on this journey that the 
splendid Laurel, or Rhododendron Catawbiense of 
Botanists, was discovered, which, with the varieties 
obtained by skillful cultivation, was for long the 
pride of the English florists. Both revisited the 
country in 1807. After the decease of the father in 
1811, the younger Fraser returned hither and passed 
several years in diligent examination of the Moun- 
tains, annually sending large quantities of ornamental 


plants and seeds to Great Britain. He is well and 
respectfully remembered by those who made his 
acquaintance, especially in Burke County. 

Mons. Delile, French Consul at Wilmington, in 
the early part of this century, sent valuable collec- 
tions of plants from the Cape Fear region to Paris, 
which are acknowledged in the writings of several 
European authors. 

Mr. John Lyon, of Great Britain, was an assidu- 
ous collector of our plants, and contributed very 
largely of our most interesting species to the English 
gardens. He probably was in our mountain region 
previous to 1802, but of this I have no positive in- 
formation. He, however, spent several }~ears there 
at a subsequent period, and died at Asheville in Sep- 
tember, 1814, aged forty-nine years. A plain marble 
stone marks his last resting-place in the graveyard 
at Asheville. A manuscript Flora, which he seems 
to have compiled for convenient use as a manual, 
from such works as had then been published on 
American plants, is now in my possession. 

F. A. Michaux, son of the Michaux mentioned 
above, and who accompanied his father in some of 
his visits to this country, traversed a portion of our 
mountain district in 1802. The result of his explo- 
rations in various parts of the country is contained 
in his large work on the " Forest Trees of North 
America," * illustrated with beautiful colored plates. 

* An exquisitely beautiful edition of this work was published in . 
1857, by Rice and Hart of Philadelphia, in five volumes. 


I am much indebted to this valuable work for infor- 
mation upon the economical value of our timber 
trees given in the following description of our 
Woody Plants. 

Frederic Pursh, a German, author of a valuable 
" Flora of North America," and who traveled exten- 
sively in the Northern and Middle States, pretends 
to have extended his journeyings to North Carolina, 
but his statement is deemed rather more than doubt- 

Mr. Kin, a German nurseryman living at Philadel- 
phia, visited our State in the early part of the present 
century. He was a man of little cultivation, not 
properly a Botanist, and his discoveries were pub- 
lished by others. 

Thomas Nuttall, an Englishman, but long a 
resident in this country, a most accomplished Bota- 
nist, who has contributed as much as any one man 
to the discovery and ejucidation of the floral treas- 
ures of North America, examined portions of our 
mountain and lower districts. He is the author of 
" Genera of North American Plants," and of many 
important botanical papers in the scientific journals 
of this country. He died in 1859. 

H. B. Croom, Esq., and Dr. II. Looms, made a 
pretty careful exploration of the vicinity of Newbern, 
and their observations were published, in 1833, in a 
Catalogue of Plants of Newbern and vicinity. A 
second and enlarged Catalogue was printed in 1837 
by Mr. Croom. In this the services of Mr. Geo. 


Wilson are acknowledged for valuable contributions 
to the knowledge of plants around Newbern. 

In 1833, I published, in the " Boston Journal of 
Natural History," an Enumeration of the Plants 
growing around Wilmington, the fruit of diligent 
examination made during a residence there of two 
years and a half. Occasional visits since made have 
increased the number of species known in that most 
interesting locality, the Flowering Plants and Ferns 
of which exceed one thousand. 

Dr. James F. McRee, of Wilmington, has devoted 
much time to a study of the Plants of that neighbor- 
hood, and the completeness of the above Enumeration 
is not a little due to his observation and assistance. 

The late Rev. Dr. L. D. von Schweinitz, of Sa- 
lem, has contributed very largely to a knowledge of 
the' Botany of this State, particularly in its lower 
orders, or those having no proper flowers, as Mosses, 
Fungi, &c. In these departments he was the most 
expert and accomplished Botanist that our country 
has produced. In 1821 he printed at Raleigh a small 
tract of twenty-seven pages upon the Hepatic 3Iosses 
or Liverivorts, most of which he had observed near 
Salem. In 1820 he published in a scientific journal 
at Leipsic a paper upon the Fungi of North Carolina, 
containing descriptions of a large number of species 
previously unknown, some of which are illustrated 
by very good figures. A similar paper upon the 
Fungi of the United States, printed in 1831 in the 
Journal of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, 


contains a large amount of North Carolina species 
not included in the former paper. These were the 
first treatises of the kind produced in this country, 
and the list of species given in the following report 
will embrace a large number derived from them. 
This learned and most estimable gentleman, a worthy 
descendant of the celebrated Count Zinzendorf, de- 
parted this life, February, 1834, at the age of fifty- 
four years. 

The JRev. Dr. Mitchell, during one period of his 
Professorship at our University, was an assiduous cul- 
tivator of botanical science, and had made a consid- 
erable collection of specimens, which he generously 
shared with Dr. Schweinitz and myself. I am in- 
debted to him for several species which had other- 
wise been yet unknown to our North Carolina Flora. 
A species of Carex, named after him, commemorates 
his devotion to the beautiful science. This is a petty 
tribute to his name ; but others have honored it in 
better proportion to its woTth. Mt. Mitchell, the 
loftiest summit of the Black Mountain range, the 
witness of his laudable triumph when he first ascer- 
tained its surpassing height, and which alone saw the 
sad catastrophe of his death in the darkness of night 
and storm, is his noble monument and his tomb. 

Dr. Cyrus L. Huxter, of Lincoln County, has 
devoted considerable attention to the study of plants 
in his vicinity, and I am indebted to him for infor- 
mation which will be acknowledged in another place. 
He published in the Charlotte Journal (for 1834 ?) 


a list of such plants as he had observed in his neigh- 

Prof. A. Gray, of the University of Cambridge, 
and John Carey, Esq., of New York, examined the 
principal mountains of Ashe and Yancey in 1841, 
and detected several species of plants which had 
escaped the notice of previous investigators. An in- 
teresting account of this expedition may be found in 
an article by Prof. Gray in the American Journal of 
Science, vol. xlii, to which I am indebted for much 
of the information here given of the early explorers 
of our alpine district. 

The same distinguished Botanist, with Mr. Sulli- 
vant of Ohio, in 1843, entered our mountains from 
Virginia, the former continuing along the range to 
Georgia ; the latter leaving the State by the French 
Broad River. The results of this tour have not been 
formally published. Large collections, however, 
were made by Prof. Gray for the Botanic Garden at 
Cambridge ; and two beautiful volumes of specimens 
of Mosses and Liverworts were prepared by Mr. Sulli- 
vant, which were gratuitously distributed among 
Naturalists in this country and Europe. In a subse- 
quent year Mr. Sullivant made a botanical recon- 
noissance in the low country of North Carolina. 

Mr. S. B. Buckley has also made valuable contri- 
butions to our knowledge of the Flora of Western 
Carolina. In 1842 he entered the State by the Hi- 
wassee River, spending the summer in a careful ex- 
amination of the principal summits and watercourses 


as far as Yancey County. Several new species were 
detected by this gentleman and published in vol. xlv 
of Sillim an's Journal. Since the above date he has 
made several visits to the same region. 

Mr. Rugel, a German collector of plants, spent 
some time in our mountains in 1842. His discov- 
eries were published by Shuttleworth and others. 

Mr. Dow, a young Botanist, traversed the whole 
length of our mountain range in 1844, but I have 
never learned if his observations and discoveries 
have been made public. 

The writer of this, during a residence near the 
mountains in 1835-36, had occasional opportunities 
of visiting the high ranges in Burke and Yancey, as 
also the counties of Lincoln, Mecklenburg, and Cald- 
well. In 1839 he spent the summer in traversing 
the mountains from Ashe to Georgia. A visit of a 
few weeks was again made to Ashe and Yancey in 
1845 ; and another in 1854 to Buncombe and Hen- 
derson. Besides these, a residence of some years in 
various portions of the middle and lower sections of 
the State, comprising in all about twenty years, has 
given him opportunities of becoming acquainted with 
the vegetable productions of the State, of which he 
has assiduous!} 7 availed himself, and the results have 
been published in various journals in this countn r 
and England. The accompanying list of species con- 
tains all that is known of the plants of North Caro- 
lina, — a longer list than has yet been published of 
any State in the Union. 


It may be expected, perhaps, that in enumerating 
those who have contributed to a knowledge of the 
natural productions of our State, I should not omit 
a notice of Lawson's " History of North Carolina," 
the first printed work devoted to this subject. But, 
besides that this book is now nearly inaccessible, 
there being but a single copy in the State, we cannot 
always recognize the objects described in it, the ap- 
plication of Indian names being lost, and that of 
English names rather variable and uncertain. So 
far as I have been able to authenticate species no- 
ticed by Lawson and other old journalists quoted in 
Dr. Hawks's " History of North Carolina," I have 
done so in the April number (1860) of the North 
Carolina University Magazine. The information 
upon the natural history of the State contained in 
their works is now of no scientific or economical 
value, and their errors in statement are not few. 

In the following arrangement of our Woody Plants, 
I shall not be governed by established scientific 
rules, but shall adapt it, as well as I can, to the com- 
prehension of those who know nothing at all of 
Botany as a science. I hope, in this manner, so to 
present our Trees, Shrubs, and Climbers, that the 
most, if not all of them, shall be easily recognized 
with very small expenditure of patience and study. 
The well-known popular names applied to most of 
the species and genera will greatly facilitate the suc- 
cess of this arrangement. 

The above-mentioned Divisions will be subdivided 


according to the nature of the fruit in each, some 
groups having cones, like the Pines ; some, nuts, like 
Oaks and Hickories ; others, fleshy or 'pulpy fruit, 
like the Apple and Plum. A tabular view of this 
classification will be given at the end of this Report. 

%* The scientific names will in all cases corre- 
spond with those in Dr. Chapman's "Flora of the 
Southern United States." 


Trees of North Carolina. 


PINES. — These have their fruit in large scaly 
cones, popularly called burs, and have evergreen nee- 
dle-shaped leaves, two to five enclosed in a sheath at 
their base. 

1. Yellow Plxe. (Pinus mitis, Michx.) — This, 
with us, is called Short-leaved Pine and Spruce Pine. 
The first is objectionable, because we have at least 
two species with shorter leaves ; and the second, be- 
cause another is more appropriately called by that 
name. I have, therefore, adopted the name by which 
it is known in the Middle States, and recommend its 
use here, as it is much to be desired that there be a 
greater uniformity in the popular designations of our 
forest trees. In the great confusion now prevalent, 
it is often quite impossible to ascertain what is meant 
by the names of our most com men trees and other 
plants. This is, perhaps, the most widely diffused of 
all our Pines, it being common from New England to 
Florida, mostly in light clay soils. With us it is 
found from the coast to the mountains, but more 
rarely in the Lower District, and it enters into the 
composition of most of our upland forests. It is 


from 40 to 60 feet high, with a circumference of 4 or 
5 and even 6 feet. The limbs on the upper part of 
the tree are more inclined towards the trunk than 
those of our other species, so as to give somewhat of 
a pyramidal form to the top. The leaves are 2 to 5 
inches long, generally two, but sometimes three, in a 
sheath. The cone or bur is the smallest of all our 
species, rarely attaining a length of 2 inches, the tips 
of the scales armed with slender short prickles. The 
heart-wT)od is fine grained and but moderately resin- 
ous ; but the sap-wood soon decays. The timber is 
extensively used in house and ship building, though 
not deemed so valuable as that of the Long-leaf. 
When grown in very rich soils, I believe its timber is 
coarser than when raised in less fertile land. 

2. Jersey Pine. (P. inops, Ait.) — This tree is 
generally confounded in this State with the preced- 
ing, and also called Short-leaved Pine and Spruce 
Pine. In some parts of the country it is known also 
under the names of Cedar, River and Scrub Pine. 
The name which I have adopted, after Michaux, 
seems to have originated from its being a prevalent 
tree in New Jersey, where it has its northern limit, 
and from whence it is found, on barren and gravelly 
hills, to the upper part of Georgia. In such situa- 
tions it is found in the Middle and Upper Districts 
of this State, but nowhere very abundant. It is from 
20 to 40 feet high, and 12 to 15 inches in diameter, 
with rather distant, spreading and drooping branches. 
The young branches are smoother in this than in 


other species. The leaves are two in a sheath, 1 to 
2 inches long, about half the length of those of the 
preceding species, while the cones are considerably 
larger than in that, being 2 to 2£ inches long, and 
armed with longer and stouter sharp prickles. This 
tree is too small, often crooked, and generally with 
too much sap-wood, to be of any value. 

3. Prickly Pine. (P. pungens, Michx.) — The 
name here given is but a translation of the scientific 
one, as I could never learn that it was distinguished 
from the Yellow Pine by the inhabitants of the region 
where it grows. In some books it is called Table 
Mountain Pine, because it was originally supposed to 
be pretty much confined to that mountain and its 
immediate neighborhood. But as I have seen it from 
the mountains of Virginia and Georgia, and from 
Pilot Mountain in this State, far east of the Blue 
Ridge, and have found it common on all the eastern 
spurs of the Blue Ridge (never west of it), in the 
northern portion of our mountain range, such a name 
is too local to be at all appropriate. This species is, 
however, the least widely diffused of any North 
American Pine. The tree is not very symmetrical, 
is from 30 to 50 feet high, and 12 to 20 inches in 
diameter. The leaves are in pairs, as in the two pre- 
ceding species, but much thicker and stiffer than in 
those, and about 2£ inches long. But the cones give 
the chief peculiarity and interest to this Pine. They 
are of a light yellow color, very compact, 3 inches 
long and 2 inches broad at the base, the scales armed 


with very broad strong sharp spines, which are one- 
sixth of an inch long and bent toward the top of the 
cone. In the strength and sharpness of these spines 
we have no other species with which we can compare 
this. I have never learned that the timber of this 
tree is of any special value. 

4. Pitch Pine. (P. rigida, Mill.) — Generally 
known by this name, but, according to Michaux, 
sometimes called Black Pine in Virginia. I think it 
is, in North Carolina, confounded with the Yelloiv 
Pine, as I have not heard any distinctive name for it, 
though its leaves are in threes (rarely in fours), 3 to 
5 inches long, and more rigid than in the latter. The 
tree is 30 to 50 feet high, with a rough blackish bark, 
the branches numerous and occupying two-thirds of 
the trunk, thus rendering the wood very knotty. 
The cones are 2 or 3 inches long, of a light brown 
color, often growing in clusters of 3 to 5, and the 
scales having sharp reflexed prickles. The wood is 
compact and heavy, filled with resin, though when 
grown in low grounds it is much lighter and has 
much more sap-wood. It is a good deal used in some 
parts of the country, but being inferior to the Yelloiv 
Pine, and much less common with us, it is not deserv- 
ing of much consideration. It is nowhere common 
in this State, and I have not observed it anywhere 
east of -Lincoln county, though it is probably scat- 
tered sparingly through the Middle District. It is 
found northward as far as New England, and south- 
ward, I think, to Georgia. 


5. Pond Pine. ( P. serotina, Michx.) — This has 
considerable resemblance to the Pitch Pine, but is 
as remarkable for its scattered branches as that is for 
its crowded ones. They are, however, in no danger 
of being confounded in this State, as I do not think 
they are found in the same sections. But it is very 
frequently confounded in the low country with the 
Loblolly Pine, though very readily distinguished from 
that by its cones. It is common in the small swamps 
or bays of the Lower District, in company with 
Sweet Bay, Sour Gum, &c, and occasionally in simi- 
lar situations in the Middle. It sometimes covers 
pretty large tracts of rich swampy and peaty lands, 
but never, I think, constitutes any extensive forest. 
In some localities it is called Savanna Pine. The 
leaves of this species are in threes, and 5 to 7 inches 
long. The cones are remarkable for their short form, 
compared with their size, being about %\ inches long 
and 5 in circumference at their base, armed with very 
short fragile prickles. They grow in clusters, often 
surrounding the branch, are of shining light brown 
color, and remain closed until the second year. They 
are deemed ornamental enough to grace the mantel 
in some houses. This tree is generally about 40 or 
50 feet in height, but in favorable soils rises as high 
as 60 and even 80 feet. The wood is of better and 
more durable qualities than that of the Loblolly, and 
is occasionally used for the masts of small vessels. 
It is not known to exist north of this State. 

6. Loblolly or Old Field Pine. (P. Taeda.) — 


This tree has its northern limit in or near the District 
of Columbia, gradually becoming more abundant to 
the southward, until, in this State, it is the most 
common Pine, next to the Long-leaf, in the Lower 
District. It is there found wherever the soil is dry 
and sandy, as well as in some of the smaller swamps ; 
but is replaced by the Yellow Pine on clayey and 
gravelly soils. In exhausted fields out of cultivation 
it almost invariably springs up, which gives the origin 
of one, and in this State the most common, of its 
names. Its leaves are from 6 to 10 inches long, 
clustered by threes (very rarely 2 or 4), in a sheath. 
The cones are 3 to 5 inches long, the scales armed 
with rather strong sharp prickles. The trunk rises 
to the height of 50 and 70 feet, with a diameter of 2 
and 3 feet, and has a spreading top. The wood is 
sappy and coarse-grained, liable to warp and shrink, 
and soon decays on exposure. It is among the least 
valuable of our Pines, but is sometimes applied to 
inferior uses. It affords a good deal of Turpentine, 
which is less fluid than that from the Long-leaf. This 
tree extends somewhat into the Middle District. 

I am indebted for the knowledge of an important 
'variety of this tree, known as the Swamp or Slash 
Pine, and about Wilmington as Rosemary Pine, to 
some articles in Russell's Magazine, written by Mr. 
Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, who has made a careful 
examination of the characters and habits of our 
southern Pines. He says : u This [Slash Pine] tree 
grows only on low and moist land, and is the better 


for timber, and grows larger in proportion to the 
greater richness of the land. It is the principal and 
largest timber Pine in the original forests of all the 
low, flat and firm but moist lands bordering on Albe- 
marle Sound, and also farther South ; and I have 
seen it growing as well, but much more sparsely, on 
'the rich swampy borders of the Roanoke and in the 
best Gum lands bordering on the Dismal Swamp, 
and some on the low bottom lands of Tar River. 
Among the other gigantic forest trees on the rich 
and wet Roanoke Swamps (on the land of Henry 
Burgwyn, Esq.), mostly of Oak, Gum, Poplar, &c, 
the few of these Pines which yet remain, tower far 
above all others (20 feet or more) so as to be seen 
and distinguished at some miles' distance. I have 
visited several standing trees and the stumps of 
others which had been cut down, which measured 
nearly or quite five feet in diameter, and were sup- 
posed to have been from 150 to 170 feet in height. 
But the sizes and heights of the trees may best be 
inferred from the list below of hewn (or squared) 
stocks, which was furnished to me from Mr. Herbert's* 
timber accounts. These stocks were cut in Bertie 
county, made the whole of one raft which was then 
(May, 1856,) on its passage through the Dismal 
Swamp Canal to New York. The stocks were thence 
to be shipped to Amsterdam for naval construction, 
under a contract with the Dutch government. 

* Of Virginia ; a large contractor for the supply of timber to the 
Navy Yards. 





Inches Square. 

No. of Cubic Feet. 










• 86 























































u But even the longest of these stocks do not ap- 
proach the magnitude of one which was cut at a pre- 
vious time in Bertie and sold in New York by Mr. 
Herbert. This was 80 feet in length and 36 inches 
square at the lower end. He sold it to a dealer for 
$500, and the buyer resold it for $600. This stock 
did not retain its stated diameter (at the butt) to 
its upper extremity, but there was from 28 to 30 
inches square. All of these stocks were nearly all of 
heart-wood. Of course this condition permits but 
little sap-wood, and that only in the angles of the 
squared stocks. Thence, also, it follows that the 
proportion of heart-wood in these trees must be very 


large. The timber must be resinous, or it would not 
be good ; and it must be durable, or it would not 
serve for the masts and other great spars of ships of 
war, exposed to alternations of wetting and drying, 
and for which the best materials only are permitted 
to be used. The grain of this heart-wood is not gen- 
erally very coarse, but more so than the Long-leaf, 
and still more than the Short-leaf [or] Yellow Pine" 
7. Long-leaf Pine, (P. australis, Michx.) — The 
invaluable tree by which the country, and this State 
especially, have' so largely profited, is generally 
known among us by the name here given, though it 
sometimes is called Yellow Pine. In the navy and 
dock yards of the country it bears the latter name, 
though this designation there includes also the Swamp 
or Rosemary Pine, as well as the species first de- 
scribed in this list. It begins to appear in the south- 
eastern part of Virginia, and from thence to Florida 
it is eminently the tree of the lower districts of the 
Southern States, occupying nearly all the dry sandy 
soil for many hundred miles. It is from 60 to 70 
feet high, in favorable situations still higher, and 15 
to 20 inches in diameter. The leaves are 10 to 15 
inches long, on young stocks sometimes much longer, 
and clustered on the ends of the branches like a 
broom. The cones are 6 to 8 inches long. The wood 
contains very little sap. The resinous matter is dis- 
tributed very uniformly through it, and hence the 
wood is more durable, stronger, and more compact; 
which qualities, in addition to its being of fine grain, 


give it the preference over all our Pines. The qual- 
ity of the wood, however, depends upon the kind of 
soil in which it is grown, as in a richer mould it is 
less resinous. This inferior kind is, in some places, 
distinguished as Yellow Pine, — another case in point, 
illustrating the vague and indiscriminate application 
of the popular names of our forest trees. In some 
soils the wood is of a reddish hue ; and this, in the 
Northern dock-yards, is denominated Red Pine, and 
considered better than the others. I am informed 
that trees which have a small top indicate a stock 
with the best heart-wood > 

The great value of this tree in both civil and naval 
architecture is too well known to justify a full enu- 
meration of its uses, and statistics of trade in it be- 
long rather to a gazetteer than to an essay like this. 
But it is not the wood only that gives value to this 
tree. The resinous matter, in various forms, is 
shipped from our ports in large quantities to all parts 
of the United States and to foreign countries. Turpen- 
tine is the sap in its natural state as it flows from the 
tree. When it hardens upon the trunk, and is gotten 
off by proper implements, it is called scrapings, of 
very inferior value to the virgin article. Tar is made 
by burning the dead limbs and wood in kilns. Pitch 
is tar reduced about one half by evaporation. Spirits 
of Turpentine is obtained by distillation from turpen- 
tine, including scrapings. Rosin is the residuum left 
by distillation. The greater part of these articles in 
the markets is derived, I believe, from this State. 


Large tracts of this Pine are sometimes suddenly 
destroyed, as by a blight, to the irreparable injury of 
the owners, as the forests cannot be reproduced in 
a lifetime. From the great value of the tree its de- 
struction has attracted more especial notice ; but our 
Yellow Pine (P. mitis) is subject to the same casual- 
ty. In Europe the same kind of fatality happens to 
the Firs. The mischief is caused by swarms of a 
small insect penetrating through the bark into va- 
rious portions of the stock, and against which there 
is no remedy yet discovered* Other species of insect 
sometimes attack the Oaks, and effect a similar de- 

8. White Pine. (P. Strobus, Linn.) — This beau- 
tiful tree, of such immense value to Canada and New 
England, extends along the Alleghanies to our own 
mountains, where it is found in considerable quanti- 
ties, forming peculiar and handsome forests in the 
rich elevated valleys, especially of Ashe and Yancey. 
It is found as far south as Georgia. Though at the 
North this tree is as important, and its timber as ex- 
tensively used, as our own Long-leaved Pine, yet 
from its inaccessibility in our mountains it has no 
marketable value with us, and does not seem to be 
much used in the region where it grows. 

There are peculiarities about this tree which dis- 
tinguish it at first sight, and at any distance, from 
all our Pines, in the pale green color of its foliage, 
the smooth, light bark of the trunk, and the circular 
disposition of the limbs, which gradually diminish in 


length toward the summit, so as to give this the sym- 
metry of a Fir more than of a Pine. The leaves are 
also five in a sheath, which is the case with no other 
of our Pines. In favorable situations at the North, 
this tree has been known to reach a height of 180 
feet, with a diameter of 7 feet. In our mountains it 
is found from 60 to 70 feet high, with a proportional 
diameter. The wood is light, soft, free from knots, 
very easily worked, and durable, though not very 
strong, and is applied to a far greater variety of eco- 
nomical uses than that erf any other Pine. 

FIRS AND SPRUCES.— These are distinguished 
from the Pines by their leaves growing singly upon 
the branches, (not included by twos, threes, &c, in 
a common sheath,) and by their cones, which are 
composed of thin scales without prickles, somewhat 
like Hops. They are all possessed of singular beauty, 
and are indispensable to the perfection of artificial 
groves and parks. It is only in cool and moist situ- 
ations, however, that they can be fully developed ; 
though they thrive and are very ornamental in pri- 
vate grounds through the Middle District of the 
State. They are impatient of the heat in the Lower 
District, and unless well shaded there, are apt to re- 
main dwarfed, or to die out. 

1. Balsam Fir. (Abies Fraseri, Pursh.) — This 
is the handsomest of our Firs, and is veiy similar to 
the Silver Fir of Europe, though every way smaller ; 
the latter sometimes attaining the height of 150 feet, 


while ours seldom reaches 40, with a diameter of 12 
to 15 inches. It is an inhabitant of the higher moun- 
tains from Pennsylvania southward as far as this 
State. Farther north it is replaced by a larger but 
very similar species known as the Canada Balsam 
(A. balsamea). It is not uncommon on our highest 
summits, but I think is not found upon any which 
do not exceed 4,000 feet above the sea. Some of 
these summits appear to be occupied almost exclu- 
sively with forests of this tree, and the dark color of 
these and of masses of the next species has probably 
given its name to the Black Mountain. Several 
knobs and ranges south of the French Broad River 
are called Balsam Mountain from the prevalence of 
this tree upon them. When not too much crowded, 
this has a close pyramidal top. The leaves are of a 
bright green above, and silvery white beneath. When 
the branches are loaded with cones, (which in this 
species only stand erect,) the tree is very beautiful. 
The cones are from 1 to 2 inches long. The timber 
is of little value, though sometimes sawed or hewed 
out for mountain cabins ; yet if valuable, it could 
not, from its location, be available. The turpentine 
or balsam is a clear thin liquid, obtained from small 
blisters on the bark of the trunk by means of sharp 
horn spoons or scoops inserted into their lower side. 
It is of an acrid taste, and is much used by the in- 
habitants on cuts and sores ; but the application is 
painful, and as likely to promote inflammation as to 
allay it. 



2. Black Spruce. (A. nigra, Poir.) — Common in 
our mountains, especially on the Black, but at a 
lower elevation than the preceding species. It ex- 
tends from this State along the Alleghanies to New 
England and Canada. In our mountains it is some- 
times very improperly called Juniper, and it is, I be- 
lieve, what is most commonly and absurdly called He 
Balsam. With us it is a small tree of darker green 
foliage than the preceding, but of similar form. In 
higher latitudes it has a height of 70 or 80 feet, and 
is there an elegant tree. The wood has strength, 
lightness and elasticity, and is much used both in 
the Northern States and abroad, for the yards and 
topmasts of vessels. The drink so popular at the 
North, and known as Spruce Beer, gets its name from 
the use of the small branches, chiefly of this species, 
which are steeped in the brew. 

3. White Spruce. (A. alba, Michx.)— This has 
about the same range in the United States as the 
Black Spruce, but does not extend quite so far to the 
northward. It is rather rare in our mountains, but 
is occasionally met with in similar situations with 
the other, and with which it is generally confounded 
by the inhabitants. In one instance I heard it called 
Lavender, a name belonging to a garden herb. It is 
very distinct from the preceding, and its whole aspect 
is lighter ; the summit of a similar pyramidal form, 
but less compact, is of less size, with slender and 
more drooping branchlets, the pale green leaves of 
more delicate form, and the cones narrower. The 


wood is employed for the same purposes as that of 
the Black Spruce. 

4. Hemlock Spruce. (A. Canadensis, Michx.) 
— Universally known in our mountains as Spruce 
Pine, though the name here preferred is not unknown. 
The latter is a very common appellation of the Yel- 
low Pine in this State. The Hemlock is found as far 
north as Hudson's Bay ; whether south of North 
Carolina I have not learned. It is almost entirely 
confined, in the mountains, to the borders of torrents 
and cold swamps, but extends down to their very base. 
This is a larger tree than the preceding Spruces, but 
does not attain here, as in higher latitudes, the stature 
of 70 or 80 feet, and a diameter of 2 or 3 feet. In 
its light spreading spray and delicate foliage it is a 
more graceful tree than the others. The leaves are 
light green above and silvery beneath. They spread 
two ways upon the branches, while in all the other 
Spruces they spread from every part of them. The 
cones are i to 1 inch long, and gracefully depend from 
the ends of the branchlets. The timber is used to 
some extent at the North, but is of inferior impor- 
tance. The bark, however, is extensively and almost 
exclusively used for tanning in some parts of New 
England. Though inferior to Oak bark, it is said 
that the two united are preferable to either alone. 

White Cedar. (Cupressus thyoides, Linn.) — In 
North Carolina, and some other portions of the 
South, this seems to be known only under the name 
of Juniper. But as it is not Juniper, I do not hesi- 


tate to reject the name. The one above given is in 
common use in the Middle and Northern States 
wherever the tree is found. The true Juniper ^Ju- 
niperus communis) of Europe and the Northern 
States is related to our Cedar, and its fruit is an aro- 
matic berry ; while that of the present species is a 
small, dry, woody cone, composed of scales which 
spread open in maturity after the manner of a Pine 
or Cypress bur. This tree is found from Florida to 
New England. In our State it is confined to swamps 
in the Lower District, where, in some places, it is very 
abundant. It is 70 or 80 feet high, with a diameter 
of 2 or 3 feet. The various uses to which its wood 
is applied make it one of the most valuable trees in 
the country. It is fine grained, soft, light and easily 
worked, and after seasoning acquires a light rosy tint. 
It has a strong aromatic odor, and the flavor given 
to water kept in buckets or piggins of this material 
is generally esteemed. From the little effect pro- 
duced upon it by moisture or dryness, as well as for 
its lightness and freedom from splitting, the shingles 
made of it are, in some places, preferred over all 
others, and last from 30 to 35 years. Where it 
abounds, it is used in the frames of buildings, it be- 
ing durable and mostly free from worms. In cooper- 
work it is extensively used, and has been found very 
serviceable for vessels in which to preserve oils. 
Charcoal for gunpowder is made from the young 
stocks — lampblack, lighter and more deeply colored 
than that from Pine, is made from the seasoned wood 


— rails for fencing, made of the young stocks deprived 
of their outer bark, will last from 50 to 60 years. 

N. B. The Red Cedar, according to its natural 
affinity, should be placed in this Group ; but as its 
fruit is what is popularly called a berry, the present 
mode of arrangement requires its transfer to the 
Group having that kind of fruit. The Arbor Vit<i\ 
also belonging here, may be found among the Shrubs. 

Cypress. (Taxodium distichum, Rich.) — This 
tree, so well known under this name only, needs no 
specific description, and I will only remark that it is 
the only one in this group of trees that has not ever- 
green leaves. Its range is along the lower region of 
the Atlantic and Gulf States, from Delaware to Texas. 
In this State it has about the same range as the White 
Cedar and Long-leaf Pine, but is always confined to 
swamps. It is remarkable for its large dimensions as 
well as for its various uses. Its height with us is 
from 60 to 100 feet, with a circumference above the 
swollen base of 20 to 36 feet, though in the original 
forests of the country it has still larger dimensions. 
The wood has much strength and elasticity, is fine 
grained, lighter and less resinous than that of the 
Pines. Heat and moisture affect it much less than 
most of our timbers, and it is therefore particularly 
valuable in those parts of the State where both these 
agents have peculiar force. The timber has been 
much used in some places for the frame and wood- 
work of houses, and is said to be twice as durable as 
White Oak or Pine. The shingles made of it are of 


the most valuable kind, and will last 40 years. The 
business of making these is a very profitable branch 
of industry in the lower parts of the State. For 
fencing and for water-pipes the wood is of high value. 

There are three varieties of this tree recognized 
by those who deal in its timber — the Red, Black and 
White Cypress, characterized by the different color of 
their heart-wood. The Bed Cypress has its heart of 
a reddish tint, is preferable to the others for timber, 
and cannot be split. This variety is easily recognized 
by its straight trunk (not always having a swollen 
base), generally with a small top, and by the wounded 
bark having a reddish tinge. The Black and White 
Cypress cannot, so far as I know, be discriminated 
without the aid of the axe. The Black has its wood 
duskier and heavier than the White, which is less 
resinous. According to Michaux, the latter grows 
in land constantly inundated, and the former in drier 
situations ; but I am assured by others, that all three 
varieties may be found in precisely similar situations. 

The foliage of this tree usually spreads in only two 
directions from the branchlets, like that of the Hem- 
lock Spruce; but there is a variety, not uncommon in 
some localities, especially upon the wet savannas near 
Wilmington, on which the leaves are very small, 
growing upon four sides of the branchlets and pressed 
down upon them, much like those of the Cedar. 

Cypress Knees, growing from the roots of the tree 
to a height corresponding with the usual depth of 
the water, and constituting a singular peculiarity in 


Cypress swamps, are, I suppose, the result of hyper- 
trophy. Whatever be the economy or final purpose 
of these excrescences, there are probably few of the 
present day who will endorse the theory of St. Pierre, 
that they were designed to protect the trunk against 
damage from icebergs ! 

The Cypress has not ordinarily a very attractive 
form in our swamps ; but when standing alone in fa- 
vorable situations, it has a regular pyramidal top and 
is of imposing beauty. In the Bartram Garden, near 
Philadelphia, I have seen a stock (over 100 years old) 
of such exquisite symmetry, that I could not be per- 
suaded it was a Cypress, until I had satisfied myself 
by a close inspection. 


The next Group to be noticed is the most impor- 
tant, whether considered in reference to its numbers 
or its economical value, in the whole circle of Forest 
Trees. There will be included in it all those which 
bear a fruit popularly called Nuts, without reference 
to the more restricted scientific meaning of the word. 
This Group will thus include the Oak, Beech, Chest- 
nut, Hickory, Walnut, and Buckeye. 

OAKS. — This genus of trees contains more species 
than any other in our country ; and of these there is 
a larger number in North Carolina than in all the 


States north of us, and only one less than in all the 
Southern States east of the Mississippi. Some of the 
species, however, hardly rise to the dignity of trees, 
though I shall bring them all together in this place, 
where they will most naturally be looked for. 

For the better understanding of the species, they 
are divided into two Sections. The first is that of 
the White Oaks — characterized by the acorns being 
annual, the foliage of a pale or grayish aspect, and 
without bristles at the ends of the leaf divisions ; the 
bark of an ashy hue, and the wood generally lighter 
colored and of more compact texture than in the 
other Section. The second Section has acorns bien- 
nially, and the leaves (except in the Live Oak*) are 
pointed with a bristle at the end of each division. 

Section I. is again arranged in two Divisions : — the 
first having for its type the common White Oak, 
characterized by the leaves being deeply cut from 
the margin toward the central nerve. The second 
has for its type the Swamp White Oak, in which Di- 
vision the leaves are generally larger than in the 
first, and only scalloped or round-toothed on the 
edge. The species of the White Oak Section are, 
then, as follows : 

Division 1st. Division 2d. 

White Oak, (Quercus alba.) Swamp White Oak, (Q. Prinus.) 

Post Oak, (Q. obtusiloba.) Chestnut Oak, (Q. Castanea.) 

Over-cup Oak, (Q. lyrarta.) Chinquapin Oak, (Q. prinoides.) 

1. White Oak. (Quercus alba, Linn.) — This is 
found from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and ap- 


pears to be universally known by the name here 
given, — one of the few instances among the Oaks, in 
which there is not more or less confusion of popular 
names, so that there is no need of offering a specific 
description of it. It is found in this State from the 
coast to the mountains, but is most abundant in the 
Middle District. In the Lower it avoids the barrens, 
and is found chiefly on or near the borders of swamps. 
It is only in the most favorable situations that this 
tree rises to the height of 70 or 80 feet, with a diam- 
eter of four or five. It is then, with its light foliage, 
compact and even head, and straight shaft, one of 
the most imposing trees in our forests. It is, how- 
ever, seldom met with in our State having a diam- 
eter of more than 2 feet, though I have seen stocks 
here with a diameter of 3 feet. This is probably of 
more general use, and more extensively serviceable, 
than any other of our Oaks, it being valuable for 
house frames, for mills and dams, vehicles, agricultu- 
ral implements, coopers' ware, ship-building, and for 
all purposes where strength and durability are re- 
quired. The bark has been deemed by some tanners 
as the best kind for preparing leather for saddles and 
similar objects. It is sometimes used medicinally as 
a tonic and astringent. 

The variety of this species known as the Scaly 
Bark White Oak is distinguished by the thin plates 
of bark that scale off from the trunk. I have not 
learned if its timber differs essentially from that of 
the other. 


2. Post Oak. (Q. obtusiloba, Michx.) — The 
northern limit of this is in New Jersey, but it is not 
abundant and flourishing north of Maryland. From 
thence southward it enters largely into the composi- 
tion of the forests which cover the dry and poorer 
soils of the Middle Districts of the South. In the 
Lower Districts it is less common, being mostly con- 
fined to the region of swamps and lands that have 
gone out of cultivation. With us it does not appear 
to be known under any other name than the one 
given above, and by which it is most generally desig- 
nated ; but it is elsewhere sometimes called Iron Oak 
and Box White Oak. The leaves are more coarsely 
cut than those of the White Oak, their divisions often 
enlarged at their outer ends, rather rough on the 
upper side, and with a gray down underneath. The 
acorns being very sweet and much eaten by wild 
turkeys, it is in some localities called Turkey Oak. 
This tree is rarely found as high- as 50 feet, and with 
a diameter of 18 inches, but I have seen it with a 
diameter of 26 inches. Hence it cannot be employed 
for all the purposes for which the Wlxite Oak is used, 
although in fineness of grain, strength and elasticity, 
it is superior to it. It is serviceable for fence-posts, 
(hence its name,) for the work of wheelwrights and 
coopers, and is used advantageously for the knees in 
ship-building. For the staves of liquor-casks, this 
and the White Oak .supply material far superior to 
any other of our Oaks. 

3. Over-cup Oak. (Q. lyrata, Walt.) — This is 


unknown north of this State, and does not seem to 
be common anywhere. In this State I know of its 
existence only in the rich swampy lands of the Neuse 
and Cape Fear and their tributaries as far up the 
country as Chatham and Orange. The foliage has 
more resemblance to that of the Post Oak than of 
any other, for which reason it is, farther south, called 
Swamp Post Oak. It is also sometimes called Water 
White Oak. The acorn is almost wholly enclosed in 
its cup, (whence its name,) by which character this 
tree may easily be distinguished from all others. It 
sometimes attains the height of 80 feet and a diam- 
eter of 2 and 3 feet, and is then a majestic tree. The 
wood is inferior to that of the two preceding' species, 
yet is sufficiently compact to be serviceable, if it was 
more accessible and more extensively diffused. 

4. Swamp Chestnut Oak. (Q. Prinus, Linn.) — 
Not known north of Pennsjdvania, but is pretty com- 
mon in the maritime parts of the Southern States, 
where it is met with in the rich soils of the river 
swamps. With a height of 80 or 90 feet and propor- 
tional diameter, a straight trunk and expansive 
tufted summit, it forms a beautiful and majestic tree. 
The leaves are 6 to 8 inches long, broader toward 
the outer end, with coarse rounded teeth on the 
edges, and pale down underneath, and of that ashy 
hue which distinguishes all the species of this section 
of Oaks. The acorns are about 1 inch long, nearly 
half covered by the cup, and with a stem about J 
inch long. In economical value this can hold but a 


second or third rank among the White Oaks. The 
timber has strength and durability, and is therefore 
employed for various purposes ; but it is more porous 
than that of White or Post Oak. It has a straight 
split and shreds easily, and is therefore employed, 
especially by the negroes, in the making of baskets 
and brooms. Rails from this tree will last 12 or 15 
years, and the fuel is considered valuable. 

We have two varieties of this tree, so well marked 
that some botanists have regarded them as distinct 
species. But our best living botanists now consider 
them as variations from one type caused by difference 
of soil and situation. They are as follows : 

Swamp White Oak. (Var : discolor, Michx.) — It is 
generally known throughout the United States by 
this name, and takes the place of the Sivamp Chestnut 
Oak as we proceed inland from the range of the 
latter, and is found on the edges of swamps and in- 
undated banks of rivers, not in the open and drier 
forests. It is a handsome tree of 70 or 80 feet high, 
with luxuriant foliage, the silvery whiteness of the 
underside of the leaves beautifully contrasting with 
the bright green of the upper surface, when they are 
stirred by a gentle wind. The leaves are 5 or 6 
inches long, in form like the preceding, but with the 
marginal teeth more unequal. The acorns are sup- 
ported on a stem 1 to 3 inches long, by which char- 
acter this variety may be easily distinguished from 
every other Oak in this section. The wood is strong 
and elastic, and heavier than White Oak, to which it 


nearly approaches in value*; though, not being com- 
mon, it is much less used in the arts. 

Rock Chestnut Oak. (Var : monticola, Michx.) — 
This is sometimes called Rock Oak and Chestnut Oak, 
and is found as far north as New England. It is an 
inhabitant only of high rocky or gravelly situations, 
and hence occurs only in the Middle and Upper Dis- 
tricts of this State. It is a showy, symmetrical tree 
in favorable situations, with a luxuriant foliage, 
sometimes attaining a height of 50 or 60 feet, and a 
diameter of 3 feet ; but, from the usual barrenness 
of the soil where it grows, it is seldom seen of these 
dimensions, and is commonly not more than 30 or 40 
feet high. In the leaves and fruit it differs very 
slightly from the Swamp Chestnut Oak. The timber 
is valuable but not equal to White Oak, its pores 
being more open. In ship-building it is used, in 
some places, for the lower part of the frame, for knees 
and ribs. It has a reddish tinge like that of White 
Oak. For fuel it is inferior only to Hickory. The 
bark is among the best for tanning. 

5. Chestnut Oak. (Q. Castanea, Willd.) — Not 
uncommon in the Middle and Western States, but it 
occurs very scatteringly in the Southern. I have not 
noticed it in North Carolina, but Michaux mentions 
a single tree seen by him on the Cape Fear, a mile 
from Fayetteville. He also found it on the Hols ton 
and Nolachucky rivers in East Tennessee, and it 
may perhaps be found on those streams in the west- 
ern part of our State. The tree rises to a height of 


70 and 80 feet, with a diameter of 2 feet, the branches ♦ 
rather erect than spreading. It is so sparingly dif- 
fused, that the value of the wood has never been 
tested ; but its excessive porousness promises poorly. 
It has a yellowish tinge, and is therefore known in 
some localities under the name of Yellow Oak. This 
species is often confounded with the Sivamp Oaks 
described above, which it certainly resembles ; but 
its leaves are narrower, shaped more like those of 
the Chestnut, (whence its popular name,) with the 
teeth nearly sharp ; and its acorns are only about 
two-thirds of an inch long. With its fine form and 
handsome foliage, this would be very ornamental in 
private grounds. 

6. Chinquapin Oak. (Q. prinoides, Willd.) — 
Sometimes called Dwarf Chestnut Oak. Its foliage is 
somewhat like that of the Rock Chestnut Oak, and 
also has some likeness to that of the Chinquapin, 
which gives it its common name. It is a mere shrub, 
2 to 4 feet high, of no value, and is here mentioned 
only to give a complete view of the genus. It is 
found very sparingly in the Lower District, but is 
not uncommon upon poor soils in the upper parts of 
the State. 

Section II. contains three distinct Divisions ; the 
first, with leaves narrow and entire ; — the second, with 
leaves broad, generally entire, and pear-shaped ; the 
third, with leaves broad and cut into several seg- 


Division 1st. Division Sd. 

Live Oak, (Quercus virens.) Spanish Oak, (Q. falcata.) 

Willow Oak, (Q. Phellos.) Black Oak, (Q. tinctoria.) 

Shingle Oak, (Q. imbricaria.) Scarlet Oak, (Q. coccinea ) 

Laurel Oak, (Q. laurifolia.) Red Oak, (Q. rubra.) 

Upland Willow Oak, (Q. cinerea.) Scrub Oak, (Q. Catesbaei.) 

Bear Oak, (Q. ilicifolia.) 

Division 2d. 
Water Oak, (Q. aquatica.) 
Black Jack, (Q. nigra ) 

7. Live Oak. (Q. virens, Ait.) — "Well known 
under this name wherever it exists, and needing no 
description. It is found along the sea-shore from 
near Norfolk, Va., to the coast of Texas. It is com- 
monly 40 or 50 feet high, and 1 or 2 feet through the 
trunk. Of all the Oaks this is the most highly 
prized for ship-building, the timber hardening with 
age, and being closer grained and more durable than 
any other. The bark also is excellent for tanning. 

8. Willow Oak. (Q. Phellos, Linn.) — This 
beautiful tree, remarkable for the narrowness of its 
leaves, which gives the foliage much the appearance 
of that of a Willow, and by which it is easily recog- 
nized at considerable distance, extends north as far 
as New Jersey. It affects cool moist situations, and 
is not uncommon on the borders of swamps in the 
Lower District, where it rises to the height of 50 to 
60 feet, with a diameter of 2 feet. In the Middle 
District it is more scatteringly found in similar situ- 
ations. It is more to be admired for its beauty than 
its use, as the wood is very coarse grained, and ill 


adapted to purposes requiring much strength and du- 
rability ; though it is said to answer tolerably well, 
if thoroughly seasoned, for the felloes of wheels. 

9. Laurel Oak. (Q. laurifolia, Michx.) — This 
is a stately tree, of similar dimensions to the preced- 
ing, which it somewhat resembles, though the leaves 
are neither so long nor narrow, and are not always 
entire. It holds a middle place, in its general appear- 
ance and qualities, between the Willow Oak and nar- 
row leaved Water Oak. The acorn resembles those 
of the latter. I am not aware that it has any dis- 
tinctive name in this State, as it seems to be gener- 
ally confounded with one or other of the species just 
mentioned. In South Carolina along a portion of the 
Pee Dee, it has a local name of Darlington Oak. The 
English name which I have chosen is only a transla- 
tion of the botanical name. I believe this tree is not 
found north of this State, but it is common south- 
ward to Florida. It is an inhabitant of our Lower 
and Middle Districts in similar localities with the 
preceding, but flourishes well in higher and drier 
grounds, and is a common and much admired shade 
tree in towns and villages, especially in the lower 
parts of the State. 

10. Shingle Oak. (Q. imbricaria, Michx.) — 
This takes the place of the preceding Oak in the 
Upper District, not being found east of Burke and 
Wilkes. From thence westward it becomes more 
abundant along the larger water-courses, especially 
those which flow to the west, as the Pigeon and Hi- 


wassee. Its northern limit is in western Pennsyl- 
vania. It is more common in the Western States, as 
far north as Illinois, and is there known by the names 
of Jack Oak, Black Jack Oak, Laurel Oak and Shin- 
gle Oak. In those parts of our State where it occurs, 
I have heard it called only Water Oak, a name very 
generally applied elsewhere to a very different species. 
This is from 40 to 50 feet high and 12 to 15 inches in 
diameter, branches low, and casts a thick shade with 
its dark crowded foliage. The leaves are 8 or 4 
inches long, about 1 inch broad, and of a light shin- 
ing green. The wood is hard and heavy, but porous, 
and inferior to that of Willow Oak, which it resem- 
bles. In Illinois it has been used for shingles, prob- 
ably for want of a better material. On the Pigeon 
River I have noticed a few trees with the leaves more 
or less cut or lobed, which are probably a cross be- 
tween the Shingle Oak and one of the Red Oaks, 
though their whole appearance and habit were, in 
other respects, those of the former. This is Q. Leana, 

11. Upland Willow Oak. (Q. cinerea, Michx.) 
Found only in the Pine barrens of the Lower Dis- 
trict, where it is very generally diffused. It rarely 
exceeds 20 feet in height and 6 inches in diameter, 
though I have seen it, when standing alone and in 
favorable situations, quite a large tree with a circum- 
ference of 3 feet. As a general thing it may be con- 
sidered too insignificant to merit more than a passing 
notice. Its foliage is of an ashy hue. The bark af- 


fords a fine yellow dye ; but the tree is too small and 
too little multiplied to furnish material for extensive 
use. In the vicinity of the Pee Dee River this Oak 
is called Blue Jack. 

There is a dwarf variety of this, called Running 
Oak and White Oak Runners (var : pumila, Michx.), 
which is, I believe, the smallest Oak known. It 
rarely reaches a height of 3 feet, and bears a profu- 
sion of acorns at the height of 15 and 20 inches. The 
foliage is very similar to that of the preceding, but is 
smaller and becomes smoother in age. It abounds in 
creeping roots from which its small stocks spring. It 
is found only in the Lower District, especially near 
Wilmington, from whence it is sparingly found in the 
Barrens as far to the south as Florida. 

12. Water Oak. (Q. aquatica, Cates.) — This is 
not found beyond Maryland. It is abundant in our 
Lower District, and in some parts of the Middle, on 
the borders of swamps and in the river bottoms, and 
extends somewhat into the Upper. It is 40 or 50 
feet high, and 12 to 20 inches in diameter. The 
leaves are pear-shaped, as in the Black Jack, being 
much the broadest at the upper end, but are smaller, 
smoother and paler green than in that species. The 
bark is seldom used for tanning. The wood, though 
very tough, is not much employed for economical 
purposes, being inferior to other kinds of Oak. On 
the Roanoke I have heard this called Turkey Oak, 
a name also given to the Spanish and Post Oaks. 

The foliage of this tree varies very much in differ- 


ent situations, it being sometimes narrow and very 
little, if at all, broader at the upper than at the lower 
end, so as to resemble very much that of the Shingle 
Oak. But any one who is familiar with the common 
form and habit of the Water Oak will not be easily 
deceived in its varieties. 

13. Black. Jack. (Q. nigra, Linn.) — This small 
and generally unsightly tree, easily recognized at a 
distance, when it is of much size, by its lower limbs 
hanging downwards, sometimes to the very ground, 
is found as far north as New Jersey and extends into 
the Western States, as well as southward to Florida. 
In this State we meet with it in various soils and sit- 
uations from the coast to the mountains, seldom ex- 
ceeding 30 feet in height and 12 inches in diameter. 
In the largest stocks the wood is heavy and compact, 
but coarse grained and porous in the smaller ones. 
When exposed to the weather it is subject to rapid 
decay, and is not of any value in the arts. For fuel 
it is among the best woods we have. The leaves are 
large (6 to 9 inches long), of a dark green above, 
and of a rusty color beneath. On young shoots, as 
is frequent on other trees, the leaves are often twice 
their ordinary size, and divided into several segments, 
as in the Red Oaks, 

We now come to a Division of the Oaks known as 
that of the Red Oaks, in which there is such a confu- 
sion of popular names that they will be of little ser- 
vice in designating the species. There is no uni- 
formity in their application in different parts of the 


State, and within the same neighborhood the same 
name may be given to different species, or different 
names to the same species. This is not very surpris- 
ing, since there is so much resemblance among them, 
and as there is apparently a tendency to crosses 
among the members of this Division. It is indeed 
sometimes rather difficult to determine whether a par- 
ticular tree belongs to one or other of two or three 
pretty well marked species. I shall therefore be 
obliged to describe the following more minutely 
than I have the preceding, though I shall only notice 
the most common or typical forms. The names 
given below are those by which the species are most 
commonly known in different parts of the United 

14. Spanish Oak. (Q. falcata, Michx.) — This is 
generally known in this State, I think, by the name 
of Bed Oak, though sometimes called as above. It 
is also, in some parts, denominated Turkey Oak, from 
a vague resemblance between the form of the leaf 
(when it has but three divisions) and the track of a 
turkey. It is to be distinguished, even at some dis- 
tance, from other species of this section by the gray- 
ish down on the underside of the leaves and on the 
young shoots upon which they grow, giving the tree 
a very different hue from that of the others. The 
leaves, too, have narrower divisions (3 to 7 in num- 
ber) than the others, generally entire, and slightly 
curved backwards. The manner in which the clus- 
ters of leaves hang down from the ends of the 


branches gives them a plume-like aspect very unlike 
those of the other species. 

The Spanish Oak is found as far north as New 
Jersey, and southward to the Gulf of Mexico. In 
this State it is one of the most common forest trees 
from the coast to the mountains, but diminishes in 
quantity as we approach the latter. It is often over 
80 feet in height, with a diameter of 4 to 5 feet. The 
bark of the trunk is dark-colored, its outer portion 
(cellular integument) being of moderate thickness. 
The wood is reddish and coarse-grained, with empty 
pores. The staves made of it are only adapted to 
contain coarse articles, but are said to be more es- 
teemed in the West Indies than those made from the 
other Red Oaks. The wood is less durable than that 
of the IVhite Oalcs, and is not much used in building, 
etc. The bark is held in high estimation for tanning 
hides, which it renders whiter and more supple than 
other species. 

A variety of this species (var: pagodsefolia, Ell.) 
has larger leaves, cut into 11 to 13 divisions, gradu- 
ally diminishing in length from the lower to the 
upper divisions. Another variety (var: triloba, 
Michx.) has leaves with two or three short and 
rounded divisions at the outer end, but may always 
be recognized by the gray down on the underside 
and its accordance in other respects with the common 

15. Black Oak. (Q. tinctoria, Bartr.) — A tree 
80 to 90 feet high and 4 to 5 feet in diameter. The 


trunk has a deeply furrowed, dark brown bark, from 
whence the tree probably gets its name. The leaves 
are cut rather deeply into 5 or 7 divisions, the divis- 
ions being also somewhat toothed, and each part 
tipped with a bristle. They have also a thin, rusty 
down on the underside. The leaf-stem is from 1 to 
2 inches long. During the Spring and part of Sum- 
mer their upper surface is roughened with small 
glands which are perceptible to the sight and touch. 
On young stocks they turn dull red in the Fall ; those 
on old stocks, yellow. When the leaves have fallen, 
this species may be distinguished from the Spanish 
Oak by the longer, more acute and more scaly buds, 
and also by chewing a bit of the bark, which gives a 
yellow color to the saliva. The wood is reddish and 
coarse-grained, with empty pores, but is stronger and 
more durable than any other of the Red Oaks ; and 
where White Oak cannot be obtained, is a good sub- 
stitute for it in buildings. Staves are largely made 
of it for containing coarse articles. The bark is very 
rich in tannin, and is in much request. From this 
bark is obtained the Quercitron, which is extensively 
used in dyeing wool, calico, silk, and paper-hangings. 
The decoction is brownish yellow, and is made deeper 
by an alkali, lighter by acids, and brighter by a solu- 
tion of tin. 

This tree is common in the United States east and 
west of the Alleghanies, reaching north to New Eng- 
land, and is said to indicate a good soil for agri- 
culture. It is most abundant in the upper part of 


the State. If it exists in the Lower District, it must 
be sparingly. 

16. Scarlet OxVK. (Q. coccinea, Wang.) — This 
is generally confounded with the preceding species, 
and called Spanish and Red Oak in this State. It 
can be distinguished from the Black Oak by the 
leaves being more deeply cut, the divisions narrower 
and more widely separated, but especially by their 
being quite smooth on both sides and of a brighter 
shining green, turning bright scarlet after frost. The 
leaf-stem is also more slender and twice as long as in 
the Black Oak. The kernel of the acorn seems also 
to supply a uniform character of distinction, — that 
of the Scarlet Oak being white, and of the Black Oak, 
yellowish. The bark, when chewed, does not, like 
that of the Black Oak, impart a yellowish tinge to 
the saliva. The wood is very similar to that of the 
preceding'species, but is not very durable, and is not 
used for building, etc., when better material can be 
had. What is known as Bed Oak staves are made 
from this as well as from the two preceding species! 
The bark is much inferior for tanning to that of the 
Black Oak. 

This tree ranges from New England to Georgia 
and Florida. In this State it abounds chiefly in the 
Middle and Upper Districts, it not being generally 
diffused in the Lower. 

17. Red Oak. (Q. rubra, Linn.)— This, like the 
preceding species, is sometimes called Spanish Oak, 
though it is as strongly marked a tree as can be found 


in our forests. The leaves are larger (6 to 9 inches 
long), than any others in this Division, not so deeply 
cut, smooth and green on both sides, changing in the 
Fall to dull red, then to yellow. The acorns in par- 
ticular furnish a character which at once discrimi- 
nates this from all the Bed Oaks, they being of 
larger size (1 inch long), and having very flat shallow 
cups. The wood is reddish and coarse grained, and 
the pores very large. It is strong but not durable, 
and is much inferior to the other Bed Oaks, though 
staves are sometimes made of it. The bark is infe- 
rior for tanning to that of the Black or Scarlet Oak. 

This tree extends farther north than any other of 
our Oaks, reaching into Canada. It is tall and wide 
spreading, sometimes over 80 feet high, and 3 to 4 
feet in diameter. For its full development it re- 
quires a cool and fertile situation, and hence abounds 
more in the interior parts of the State. In the 
Lower District it is found but sparingly. 

18. Scrub Oak. (Q, Catesbsei, Michx.) — This 
grows only in the sandy barrens of the Lower Dis- 
trict, but may be found from the coast westward to 
the counties of Richmond and Moore. I am not 
aware of its existence north of this State, but it is 
found southward to Florida. It seldom exceeds a 
height of 25 feet, and is most commonly from 10 to 
15 feet high. Among the Bed Oaks this species is 
easily recognized, not onty by its situation and hum- 
ble size, but by the very short leaf-stem. In this last 
particular, as well as in its habit, and in the color, 


texture and weight of the wood, it has a close rela- 
tion to the Black Jack; and in South Carolina is 
called Forked-leaf Black Jack. Indeed, when the 
leaves are fallen, the two are rather difficult to be 
distinguished. For fuel they hold about the same 
rank. The bark is said to be valuable for tanning, 
but is too scanty to be much used. 

19. Bear Oak. (Q. ilicifolia, Wang.)— A shrub, 
ordinarily about 3 to 5 feet high, extending from 
New York southward through the mountains of 
Virginia (where it is common) and North Carolina 
(very rare), to Georgia. The leaves are 2 to 3 
inches long, cut about half way to the middle nerve 
into two divisions on each side, and with a white 
down on the underside. Worthless in itself, but a 
good indicator of barren soil. 

HICKORIES.— The general qualities of the wood 
of these species are so similar, that, to avoid repe- 
tition, they may as well be indicated here, so far as 
they belong to the whole genus or to any of its Divis- 
ions. For weight, strength, and tenacity of fibre, we 
have no wood superior ; but its value is impaired by 
a tendency to rapid decay on exposure, and its pecu- 
liar liability to injury from worms. Hence it cannot 
be used in buildings. But the wood of the different 
species is indiscriminately used for axle trees, axe- 
handles, carpenters' tools, screws, cogs of mill wheels, 
the frames of chairs, whip handles, musket stocks, 
rake teeth, flails, etc., etc. For hoops we have noth- 


ing equal to it. These are made from young stocks. 
For fuel, there is no wood which gives such intense 
heat and heavy long-lived coals. For this use, 
although discrimination is seldom made, the Common 
Hickory is said to be the best, and the Bitter-nut 
Hickory the poorest. For timber, Shell-Bark and 
Pig-nut Hickories are reputed the best. 

It is to be observed upon this genus of trees, that the 
species are subject to considerable variation both in 
foliage and fruit, — sometimes apparently from crosses, 
as well as from difference of situation, — and hence are 
very difficult of discrimination without long and pa- 
tient attention. This I have not given them, and am 
therefore unable to indicate anything like an accurate 
range of the species enumerated below, which have 
been carefully examined only in particular localities. 

The Hickories are peculiar to North America, of 
which we have nine species. In this State I have seen 
but six, though I give seven in the following list. 
The species are very naturally arranged in three 
Divisions. The first Division is characterized by 
the husk falling away from the Nut in four entire 
pieces, and the bark of the old trunk peeling off in 
long flakes or plates. These are the Shell-Barks or 
Shag-Barks. The second has a husk which does not 
divide down to its base, and the bark of the trunk is 
not shaggy. These two, especially the first, have 
Nuts with a sweet eatable kernel. The third Divis- 
ion has Nuts with a thin shell and husk, and an 
astringent bitter kernel. 


Division 1st. 
Shell-bark Hickory, (Carya alba.) 
Thick Shell-bark Hickory, (C. sulcata.) 

Division 2d. 
Common Hickory, (C. tomentosa.) 
Pig-nut Hickory, (C. glabra.) 
Small-nut Hickory, (C. microcarpa.) 

Division 3d. 
Bitter-nut Hickory, (C. amara.) 
Water Bitter-nut Hickory, (C. aquatica.) 

1. Shell-Bark Hickory. (Carya alba, Nutt.) — 
This is not abundant in any part of the State, and 
least of all in the Lower District. It grows upon 
the rich lands on and near watercourses. It is much 
more common in the Northern States than in the 
Southern. It is 60 to 80 feet high, with a dispropor- 
tionate diameter of 15 to 20 inches for three fourths 
of its length. The narrow strips of outer bark loos- 
ened from the trunk, attached only by the middle, 
while the two ends are bowed outwards, which char- 
acterize this and the next species, are observable 
only on stocks that exceed 10 inches in diameter and 
are 8 to 10 years old. But the leaflets are almost 
uniformly in two pairs, (rarely three,) with an odd 
one at the end of the common leaf-stem. The nuts 
are nearly pointless, and with a thin white shell. 
They are the finest nuts we have, excepting perhaps 
the Pecan Nut (C. olivseformis), of the Southwestern 

2. Thick Shell-Bark Hickory. (C. sulcata, 


Nutt.) — Most common in the Middle and Western 
States. I have not met with it in this State, and it 
is introduced here on the authority of others. It 
may be looked for only in the extreme western part 
of the State, especially along the rivers flowing west- 

This may be distinguished from the preceding spe- 
cies by its three pairs (sometimes four) of leaflets on 
the common leaf-stem, and by the thick yellowish 
shell of the nut, which is also ribbed on its upper 
half, and has a strong point. The kernel is smaller, 
and hardly so sweet as in the preceding. 

3. Common Hickory. (C. tomentosa, Nutt.) — 
Found in all the States, and common in our own for- 
ests from the coast to the mountains, the only one 
which occurs Jn the barrens. All the Hickories are 
generally characteristic of a good soil, and this is no 
exception only when it grows in the barrens, as it is 
most vigorous in rich soils. It is about 60 feet high 
and 18 to 20 inches in diameter. This species is 
white to the heart, for which reason, probably, it is 
called White Hickory in some parts of the State. The 
other species have their wood more or less reddish. 
The leaflets are from 7 to 9 (generally 7). The fruit 
has a thick husk, splitting nearly to the base. The 
nut is of various forms, but is somewhat six-angled, 
of a light brown color, with a very thick shell and 
small kernel. 

4. Pig-Nut Hickory. (C. glabra, Torr.) — Found 
in most of the States. It is 70 to 80 feet high, scat- 


teringly disseminated among the other Hickories 
throughout North Carolina. It can be distinguished 
in Winter by the shoots of the preceding Summer, 
which are brown, and not half the size of those of 
the preceding species. These are exceedingly tough 
and of the best quality for Hickory withes. The leaf- 
lets are smooth on both sides, 5 to 7 in number. The 
fruit is generally pear-shaped, the husk thin and 
green, the shell of the nut very hard and smooth, 
and the kernel small and sweetish. 

5. Small-Nut Hickory. (C. microcarpa, Nutt.) 
— This is more common in the Northern States than 
with us. I have observed it only in Caldwell County, 
though it probably exists in most of the western 
counties, intermingled with the Common Hickory. It 
is of similar dimensions with the latter^ but the bark 
of the trunk is much more even. The foliage is 
much like that of the Pig-nut. The nut is roundish, 
no^ much larger than a nutmeg, with a thin shell. 

6. Bitter-Nut Hickory. (C. amara, Nutt.) — 
Not uncommon from the coast to the mountains, pre- 
ferring rich and cool soils, where it rises to the height 
of 70 to 80 feet, with a diameter of two or more. It 
is sometimes called Swamp Hickory. The foliage ap- 
pears later than that of the other species. The leaf- 
lets are 7 to 11 and smooth. It can be recognized in 
winter by its small, yellow buds. The fruit has a 
thin husk which has prominent seams opening about 
half-way to the base, and a nut with a thin shell that 
can be crushed with the fingers. The kernel is ex- 


cessively bitter and astringent, not likely to be for- 
gotten by any who have eaten it. The timber is 
inferior to that of the others. 

7. Water Bitter-Nut Hickory. (C. aquatica, 
Nutt.) — This is 40 to 50 feet high, found only in the 
swamps and river bottoms from North Carolina south- 
ward. It is generally confounded with the preced- 
ing, from which it can be distinguished at some dis- 
tance by the more numerous (9 to 13) and more 
slender leaflets, which are shaped very much like the 
leaves of the Peach, though larger. Fruit with a 
thin husk parted nearly to the base ; a nut with thin 
shell and of a reddish color, and the kernels bitter 
as in the preceding. The timber is rather inferior, 
even to that of No. 6. 

WALNUTS.— 1. Black Walnut. (Juglans ni- 
gra, Linn.) — This tree is well known throughout the 
State by this name, and needs no particular descrip- 
tion. With us it is 40 to 50 feet. high; but in the 
richer lands of the Western States it is often 70 feet, 
with a diameter of 6 and 7. It is most abundant in 
our Middle District. The timber is much used in 
cabinet work, is of a dark brown color, strong and 
tenacious, the grain fine and compact enough for 
receiving a polish, and when well seasoned does not 
warp and split. It is also exempt from attacks of 
worms. The Nut is globular, and its kernel sweet 
and agreeable to most persons, though inferior to the 
European Walnut (J. regia.) The young fruit is 


highly esteemed for pickles and catsup. The husk 
is employed in domestic use for dyeing woollens. 
This is a pleasant shade-tree, and mingles well with 
others about a residence. 

2. White Walnut. (J. cinerea, Linn.) — This is 
the common name of the tree in the section of State 
where it grows, though that of Butternut, applied to 
it in the Northern States, is not unknown. It is 
found upon bottom lands and river banks in the 
valleys of the Mountains. I have not met with it 
east of Wilkes, but am informed that it is occasion- 
ally found as far down the country as Orange and 
Randolph. Its general aspect is very much that of 
the Black Walnut, but it is a smaller tree, and when 
in fruit can be at once recognized by the Nuts, which 
are about twice as long as broad. When not in 
fruit, the pitchy clamminess of the leaf-stems and 
young branchlets, together with the smooth gray 
bark of the branches, will readily distinguish it. In 
favorable localities at the North, this tree attains the 
height of 50 feet, with a diameter of 3 or more ; but 
with us it is rather smaller. The timber is of a red- 
dish hue, not of much strength, but durable and 
free from attacks of worms. It is used in light cabi- 
net work and in the panels of carriages, as it is light, 
not liable to split, and receives paint remarkably 
well. It is also used somewhat in the lower frame- 
work of buildings and for the various purposes in 
rural economy which require material not easily 
affected by heat and moisture. The bark is some- 


times used for dyeing woollens a dark brown, though 
not equal for this purpose to that of Black Walnut. 
It is also a domestic remedy for cases where a sure 
but safe and gentle cathartic is needed. The kernel 
of the Nut is more oily than in the Black Walnut, 
but is palatable. The young fruit is used for Pickles. 
The sap of the tree is slightly saccharine, and sugar 
has been made from it, but not equal to that from 
the Maple. 

CHESTNUTS.— 1. Chestnut. (Castanea vesca, 
Linn.) — This is an inhabitant of all the cooler parts 
of the United States. With us it is chiefly confined 
to the mountains from Ashe to Cherokee, and is 
found but sparingly on hills in the Middle District 
as low down as Guilford and Randolph. It finds its 
proper soil and temperature on the sides of our high 
mountains, where it probably acquires as large dimen- 
sions as anywhere in the Union ; stocks being some- 
times met with which, at 6 feet from the ground, 
measure 15 to 16 feet in circumference. Its usual 
height is from 50 to TO feet, .but is sometimes 90, 
with a capacious and well formed top. The wood is 
light, tolerably strong, elastic, and capable of resist- 
ing the effects of atmospheric changes. Its dura- 
bility gives it great value for fencing, and the rails, 
which are split out straight and easily, are said to 
last 50 years. For shingles it is superior to the Oaks, 
but is liable to warp. It is sometimes used for 
cooperage, but is too porous for anything but dry 


wares. For fuel it is little esteemed, as it snaps 
most intolerably, almost as much as Hemlock Spruce. 
But for charcoal it is well adapted, and in this form 
is extensively used in forges and smithies. 

Botanists deem our Chestnut to be only a variety 
of the European. The wood is not quite so fine 
grained, and the nuts are only about half the size of 
the European, but they are much sweeter and more 
palatable. On Mt. iEtna is a Chestnut tree (but 
apparently of five united trunks), 53 feet in diameter, 
and with a spread of branches' sufficient to shelter 
100 men on horseback ! There are several trunks 
near this which are 75 feet in circumference. 

2. Chinquapin. (C. pumila, Michx.) — This ex- 
tends from the Delaware throughout the South. In 
this State it is known from the seaboard to Cherokee, 
and in great varieties of soil. It is usually a shrub 
from 6 to 12 feet high, but in cool fertile situations it 
is sometimes 30 or 40, and 12 or 18 inches in diame- 
ter. The wood is finer grained than the Chestnut 
and equally durable ; but the stock is too small for 
extensive use. 

There is a distinct variety of this (var : nana) in 
our poor forests with slender shoots and extensive 
runners, bearing fruit at the height of a foot. 

BEECH. (Fagus ferruginea, Ait.) — Common 
throughout the United States, and the only species 
in the country. It is a very handsome tree, though 
rarely seen in cultivation. In the Lower District of 


the State it occurs rather sparingly and of no great 
size. In the Middle District it is more common and 
luxuriant ; but it is in the Mountains that it is found 
in greatest abundance and of proper dimensions, be- 
ing there from 50 to 80 and even 100 feet high, with 
a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. The wood is compact 
and tough, and of very uniform texture, by which it 
is well adapted for plane-stocks, shoe-lasts, and the 
handles of mechanical implements. When perfectly 
seasoned it is not liable to warp. It is easily affected 
by variations of moisture and dryness, but is very 
durable when kept constantly dry, or when perma- 
nently immersed in water. The bark is sometimes 
used for tanning, but is not equal to that of Oak. 
The nuts are a fine mast for hogs, and a valuable oil 
can be expressed from them. 

The old Saxon word for Beech is Buch or Buck, 
and hence our word Buckwheat (i. e. Beechwheat) 
from the similarity of their triangular fruit. 

BUCKEYES. — These handsome productions, ad- 
mired both for their foliage and blossoms, as well as 
for general elegance of form, are of the same genus 
with the Asiatic Horse Chestnut (M. Hippocastanum), 
so much prized as an ornamental tree in Europe and 
parts of this country. The leaves are what is called 
digitate; i. e. the leaflets spread, like the fingers 
of a hand, from the end of a common leaf-stem, a 
character which belongs to no other of our forest 
trees. There are four species in the United States, 


of which two are native within our limits. Possibly 
a third species (^E. parviflora) exists in the upper 
part of the State adjoining South Carolina and 

1. Yellow Buckeye. (^Esculus flava, Ait.) — 
More abundant in the Western than in the Atlantic 
States ; in the latter it is not found north of Virginia. 
In this State it is most abundant upon the sides of 
our high mountains, and is nowhere of larger size. 
It here reaches a height of 60 to 80 feet, with a 
diameter of 3 to 4, and with its tapering straight 
trunk is a very imposing tree. There is no better 
indicator than this of a deep, rich, fertile soil. The 
flowers are in large clusters, yellow (or occasionally 
with a reddish tinge), and very showy. In the Mid- 
dle District this species is found along streams and in 
river bottoms as far down as Orange, but is here a 
mere shrub 3 to 6 feet high. 

2. Red Buckeye. (iE. Pavia, Linn.) — This grows 
only in the Southern and Western States. It is dis- 
tinguished by its dull red flowers, and is what is chiefly 
known in our Lower and Middle Districts under the 
name of Buckeye. It is usualty 8 to 12 feet high, but 
sometimes becomes a small tree. The root of this 
species is sometimes used as a substitute for soap in 
washing woollen cloths. The powdered seeds and 
bruised branches, if thrown into small ponds and 
stirred a while, will so intoxicate fish that they rise 
to the surface and may be taken b}^ hand. 



The next Group of trees is that whose fruit is con- 
tained in Pods, or seed-vessels, which are longer than 
broad, like those of the Bean and Pea. It includes 
the Locust, Red Bud, etc. 

1. Locust. (Robinia Pseudacacia, Linn.) — In the 
Atlantic States this well known ornamental tree 
first appears in southern Pennsylvania, and extends 
thence along the Alleghanies to their southern ter- 
minus. It is more common in the Western States. 
In North Carolina I have met with it in a wild state 
only on the lower ridges of the mountains, but prob- 
ably it is, or was, native for some distance east of 
the Blue Ridge. The wood is hard, compact, and 
takes a high polish. It resists decay longer than al- 
most any other, and hence is exceedingly valuable 
for posts and fences. There are differences, however, 
in the quality of the trees which it is important to 
keep in mind. Those with a red heart are deemed 
the best ; those with a greenish-yellow heart, the next ; 
and those with a white heart, the least valuable. In 
civil architecture the timber is not extensively used 
in build in'gs,* but is employed for railroad ties and 
sleepers, whenever it can be had. In naval archi- 
tecture it is used to as great an extent as the supply 
will permit. For trunnels (the wooden pins that 
fasten the planks to the frame of vessels) it is of the 
highest value, as, instead of decaying, it grows harder 
with age. The wood is also used by turners instead 


of Box, for the manufacture of small articles, such as 
bowls, salad spoons, etc., for which it is well adapted 
by its hardness, durability, and capability of polish. 

2. Clammy Locust. (R. viscosa, Vent.) — A very 
ornamental tree, smaller than the foregoing and 
much less known, it being chiefly confined to the 
southern range of our mountains and the adjoining 
ones in South Carolina and Georgia. It does not 
exceed 40 feet in height. The young branches are 
covered with a clammy matter, and the flowers are 
of a beautiful rose color, — characters which will al- 
ways distinguish it from the preceding. The wood 
is similar. 

3. Rose Locust. (R. hispida, Linn.) — A well- 
known ornamental shrub of our gardens, (sometimes 
known by the singular misnomer of Bose of Sharon,) 
with large, deep rose - colored blossoms, bristly 
branches, flower-stems, and pods. It is indigenous 
to the rocky summits of mountains and hills in the 
Upper and Middle Districts ; and a dwarf variety, in 
the Pine barrens of the Lower. 

Honey Locust. (Gleditschia triacanthos, Linn.) 
— Found in all the States from Pennsylvania and 
Illinois southward. It is diffused 6ver this State, 
but is nowhere very abundant. It is from 30 to 50 
feet high, and 2 or 3 feet through. The heart much 
resembles that of Locust, but is coarser, and the pores 
are quite open like those of Bed Oak. It is there- 
fore used only where other material cannot be con- 
veniently had. The large pods, 12 or 18 inches long, 


contain a sweet pulp from which a very palatable 
beer is made. This thorny tree has been occasionally 
employed for hedges, but, in all the cases I have 
seen, without success, the stocks having all run up 
into trees, possibly from not having been kept down 
by persevering attention to cutting in. 

Red Bud. (Cercis Canadensis, Linn.) — Common 
over the United States, and found in the Lower and 
Middle Districts of this, most, abundantly in the 
latter. It is from 15 to 25 feet high, but when the 
main stock is cut generally shoots up into a cluster 
of shrubs. As it blossoms early, before the develop- 
ment of its leaves, and is covered with a profusion 
of bright purplish-red flowers, it is a very striking 
object in the forests in early Spring. 

Catalpa. (Catalpa bignonioides, Walt.) — This is 
so common around settlements as to merit a passing 
notice, though it is nowhere native in the Atlantic 
States north of the Savannah River. Further south, 
and at the West, it is not an uncommon forest tree 
near rivers, especially those that empty into the 

Kentucky Coffee Tree. (Gymnocladus Cana- 
densis, Lam.) -* A native of the Western States, but 
occasionally cultivated about houses as a handsome 
shade-tree in our Middle District, and spontaneously 
multiplying from the seeds. It has a general aspect 
like that of Locust, for which it is often mistaken. 
The pods are thick-shelled, 6 to 10 inches long and 
2 broad, containing seeds i inch broad. 



The next Group comprises trees with a flat-winged- 
fruit, as the Maple, Ash, and Elm. 

MAPLES. — These are stately and beautiful trees, 
as much prized for ornament as for their value in 
art. We have five species of Maple, all that are 
known in the United States, two of which are mere 

1. Red Maple. (Acer rubrum, Linn.) — Well 
known throughout the State, being found in swamps 
and low grounds from the coast to the mountains. 
It is among the .first trees to throw out its blossoms 
in early spring, (as early as February in the Lower 
District,) and with its bright scarlet flowers then 
gives a peculiarly pleasing aspect to the otherwise 
naked forest. In autumn, the brilliant crimson of 
its dying foliage again makes it a conspicuous object, 
though accompanied by others which vie with it in 
contributing to the splendor of our autumnal scen- 
ery. It does not appear to be so large here as farther 
north, where it is sometimes 70 feet high and 3 to 4 
feet through. The wood is of close and fine grain, 
and susceptible of brilliant polish. It is extensively 
used in the manufacture of chairs, saddle-trees, yokes, 
and various articles of wooden ware. It is not suffi- 
ciently solid, however, for heavy work, and speedily 
decays if subjected to variations of heat and moist- 
ure. When the grain of this wood has a winding 


direction, it furnishes the material called Curly Maple, 
which is much used for cabinet work and sometimes 
for the mouldings of houses. Bedsteads and gun- 
stocks of much beauty are -made of it, and it is some- 
times employed for inlaying mahogany. The varied 
effects of light and shade upon the tortuous veins 
can be much enhanced by rubbing with sulphuric 
acid, and afterwards with linseed oil. The bark of 
this tree is said to afford a dark blue dye, and a good 
black ink. The sap is somewhat saccharine, but is 
rarely used for making sugar. This tree in some 
situations has yellowish flowers and fruit, and is then 
called Yellow Maple. 

2. White or Silver Maple. (A. dasycarpum, 
Ehrh.) — This is generally confounded with the fore- 
going, but is a much rarer tree, in this State. I do 
not remember to have seen it except in the Moun- 
tains. It is 30 to 50 feet high and 1 to 2 in diame- 
ter ; though in the Western States sometimes 8 or 9 
feet through. The top is more spreading than in the 
Red Maple. The leaves are bright green above, and 
of a silvery whiteness beneath, which gives a pleas- 
ing effect to their play in the sunlight, and helps to 
render the tree a desirable addition to ornamented 
grounds. The flowers are greenish-yellow, and the 
fruit (woolly when young) has large spreading 
wings. The wood is very white and fine grained, 
but much softer than in the other Maples ; and 
hence is little used in cabinet work where the others 
can be had. The sap is sometimes converted into 


sugar, which is of superior whiteness and flavor to 
that of the Sugar Maple; but twice the quantity of 
sap is required to give an equal quantity of sugar. 

3. Sugar Maple. (A. -saccharinum, Wang.) — 
This is found from Canada to Georgia, and is the 
most interesting and valuable of our Maples. It has 
a height of 50 to 80 feet, a diameter of 2 to 3, and 
a very symmetrical oval top of compact branches, 
which make it one of the most desirable trees for 
streets and avenues. It is very abundant in our 
mountains, and occurs also in the Middle and Lower 
Districts. The wood is white when freshly cut, but 
becomes of a faint rosy hue on exposure. It has a 
fine close grain, takes a fine polish, and is heavy and 
strong. It is not as durable as Oak, and is not much 
used in Civil or Naval Architecture. When well 
seasoned, it serves for axles and spokes of wheels, 
chairs, &c. This tree produces a curled variety of 
wood like the Red Maple. But there is yet another 
and more beautiful variety, called Bird's Eye, which 
is much used for ornamental wood work. The wood 
makes excellent fuel. The ashes abound in alkali, 
and they furnish the largest part of the potash 
shipped from Northern ports. 

It is the production of sugar from the sap of this 
tree, which gives it its highest value. In some of 
the Northern States, particularly in Vermont, it is 
made to an extent that constitutes them almost as 
much a sugar producing country as Louisiana. In 
our Mountains, which are too remote from a market 


to permit any effort to produce this article in suffi- 
cient quantity, and of suitable quality, for purposes 
of commerce, it is annually made to some extent for 
home use, but not enough for the " sweetening " 
required even in the Mountains. It is only in the 
colder regions that the tree can be used for this pur- 
pose. In our low country sugar cannot be made 
from it. 

4. Striped Maple. (A. Pennsylvanicum, Linn.) 
— This grows in the colder parts of the country from 
Canada to Georgia, and is known under the names, 
besides the one already given, of Moosewood and 
Striped Dogivood. In North Carolina it is confined 
to the Mountains. It is but a shrub, rarely over 10 
feet high. The bark is smooth and green, with 
longitudinal dark stripes, which distinguishes it at all 
seasons, and makes it an object of some curiosity and 
interest in shrubberies. The fruit is like that of 
other Maples, and of greenish color. 

5. Mountain Maple. (A. spicatum, Lam.) — 
This has nearly the same range in the country with 
the preceding one. In this State it is found only in 
the Mountains, and is also a shrub 6 to 10 feet high. 
From its insignificance it does not seem to have 
attracted sufficient attention to acquire a popular 
name; but is known farther north by the above, and 
also as Low Maple. Europeans, who have paid far 
more attention than ourselves to the uses and capaci- 
ties of our forest productions, have ascertained that 
this and the Striped Maple acquire double their 


natural size when engrafted on other species of 
Maple. Its leaves and fruit have the common charac- 
ters of a Maple, the latter being rather small. 

Ash-leaved Maple. (Negundoaceroicles,Mcench.) 
— I have not learned the name by which this is 
known in North Carolina, and have adopted the one 
very appropriately used in other parts of the United 
States. In the Western States, where it is more 
common, it is called Box Elder. In South Carolina 
I have heard it called Stinking Ash. It has the 
leaves of an Ash, and the fruit of a Maple. It is rare 
in the Lower District, but is common on the borders 
of streams in the Middle District to the Mountains. 

Its ordinary height is from 15 to 25 feet, a rather 
handsome tree, of light green branches and trunk, 
and the bark of rather disagreeable odor. The wood, 
though fine-grained, is not much used, as it is liable 
to rapid decay. In the West it is sometimes em- 
ployed for inlaying furniture made of mahogany and 

ASHES. — This is a genus of handsome trees, and 
next to the Oaks, furnishes the most valuable timber 
of our forests. The distinguishing properties of the 
wood are strength and elasticity. The species have 
a great similarity of general aspect, and are subject 
to considerable variation in different soils, so that 
their discrimination requires some attention and ex- 
perience. In this State they are all called simply 
Ash, without any discriminating adjuncts, and I have 


not the advantage of names, therefore, to assist me 
in pointing ont the species. None of them are very 

1. Water Ash. (Fraxinus platycarpa, Michx.) 
— This is a Southern species, peculiar to the marshy 
borders of creeks and rivers in the Lower Districts, 
and where, so far as I have learned, there is no other 
species. It is the only one in the State in which the 
wings of the fruit extend down to the bottom of the 
seed, and is sometimes even three-winged. The lo- 
cality and the fruit will therefore readily determine 
this species. The tree is 30 to 40 feet high, its tim- 
ber probably less valuable than some of the others, 
though partaking of the same general qualities. 

2. Green Ash. (F. viridis, Michx.) — I have 
seen this only in the Middle and Upper Districts, 
upon the banks of rivers. The fruit is gradually 
dilated from the base upward. The leaflets (5 to 9) 
are more or less toothed, smooth and green on both 
sides. This is a middle-sized tree, with greenish 
branchlets. The timber is much like that of the 
others, but hardly equal to White Ash. 

8. Red Ash. (F. pubescens, Lam.) — I have seen 
this only in Lincoln, but it is doubtless an inhabitant 
of rich swampy grounds in other counties of the 
Middle District. It is 50 to 60 feet high, the under- 
side of the leaves, and also the young shoots, clothed 
with a thick whitish down, which changes, in the Fall, 
to a reddish tint, from whence is probably derived 
its common name. The leaflets (7 to 9) are but 


slightly notched. The fruit is very much like that 
of the Green Ash. The wood is redder than in the 
White Ash, is harder and less elastic, but used for 
the same purposes. 

4. White Ash. (F. Americana, Linn.) — Diffused 
through the United States. With us it is not very 
abundant, but occurs along streams and the borders 
of low grounds in the Middle and Upper Districts. 
It is 50 to 70 or 80 feet high, and 2 to 3 feet through. 
It has a straight trunk, with grayish furrowed bark, 
and smooth bluish-gray branchlets and shoots. The 
leaflets, in Summer, are very smooth, of a light green 
above and whitish beneath, very slightly toothed on 
the edges. The fruit is about \\ inch long, narrow, 
and with a long slender base, the wing springing 
from near the summit of the seed. The heart-wood 
is reddish, and is considered superior to the other 
Ashes in strength and elasticity. For all the pur- 
poses which require these properties, it is employed 
by carriage-makers, wheelwrights, shipwrights, turn- 
ers, and coopers. There are but few trees of the 
American forests more valuable and more extensively 
used than this. It is withal a very showy tree in 
private grounds. 

ELMS. — A genus of trees too well known to need 
a particular specification of their characters. The 
fruit is small, flat, and with a thin winged margin. 

1. Elm. (Ulmus Americana, Linn.) — This mag- 
nificent shade tree is well known throughout the 


country. In the most favorable situations with us, 
it is not often seen above 60 or 70 feet high ; but in 
some sections, as in the Middle States, it reaches the 
height of 100 feet, and a diameter of 4 or 5 feet. 
The timber of this tree is not in much demand, but 
is occasionally used by wheelwrights for the naves 
of wheels, where other material cannot be obtained. 

There is a difference in the spread of this tree, the 
form with drooping branches being much more grace- 
ful and showy than the one with more erect branches. 
It is much to be regretted that this is generally so 
crowded in our streets as to prevent its attaining its 
widest spread, and its most natural and attractive 

2. Small-Leaved Elm. (U. alata, Michx.) — Gen- 
erally known in this State by this name, but more 
commonly known elsewhere, perhaps, as Wahoo. It 
is not uncommon with us, except on the higher 
mountains. Its Northern limit is in lower Virginia. 
It is only 30 to 45 feet high, not only smaller, but of 
much less graceful form than the preceding, though 
often seen as a shade tree in our streets. It is readily 
distinguished by its much smaller leaves, and by the 
corky excrescences which, as in the Sweet Gum, 
wing the smaller branches. 

The wood is more compact and finer grained than 
in the former species, and is used for the naves of 
wheels, for which some prefer it to Black Gum. 

A variety of this occurs, in which the excrescences 
are wanting, and the branches more slender and 


flowing. The small leaves, however, determine the 

3. Slippery Elm. (U. fulva, Michx.) — Widely 
diffused over North America, but in no localities so 
abundant as either of the preceding. It is occasion- 
ally met with in our Lower District, but more fre- 
quently in the Middle, and to some extent in the 
Upper. It is from 30 to 50 feet high, and 12 to 18 
inches through. The wood is coarser than that of 
the other species, but is stronger and more durable, 
when exposed to the weather, than the common Elm, 
and is sometimes used in the Western States in build- 
ings and vessels. For ship blocks it is said to be of 
the highest value. As the trunk splits well, it is 
convenient for the making of rails, which are very 
durable. The inner bark of this tree, especially of 
the branches, contains a large amount of mucilage 
which is serviceable in colds and bronchial affections, 
and for emollient plasters. 


The next Group comprises those trees which have 
a fruit more or less fleshy, whether stone fruit like 
Plums and Cherries, or those which contain seeds 
like the Crab Apple, and those smaller forms which 
would popularly be called Berries. 

1. Red Plum. (Primus Americana, Marsh.) — A 
small tree or shrub not uncommon from Canada to 


Louisiana; and in this State from the coast to Chero- 
kee, especially in the Upper District, along streams 
and on the border of woods. The leaves are quite 
veiny and coarsely toothed. The fruit is red, orange 
or yellow, with a rather tough skin, generally acerb 
and uneatable, but occasionally of good flavor and 
then makes an excellent preserve. Some very good 
varieties have been produced by cultivation. 

2. Chickasaw Plum. (P. Chicasa, Michx.) — A 
shrub very common in old fields and about settle- 
ments throughout the State, sometimes becoming a 
small tree. It has every appearance of being an 
introduced plant, and it was a tradition of the 
Indians that they brought this fruit from beyond the 
Mississippi, where it is now known to be indigenous. 
The leaves are smooth, not very veiny, and finely 
toothed. The fruit varies very much both in color 
and flavor, but generally quite pleasant, and is 
much improved by cultivation. 

3. Sloe. (P. spinosa, Linn.?) — I have seen this 
only in Lincoln County, where it was pointed out to 
me by Dr. Hunter, and called by the above name. 
As I have no notes upon this small tree, I am now in 
uncertainty whether it be identical with the English 
Sloe or Blackthorn, which is naturalized in some 
parts of the country, and is considered by the best 
Botanists to be the parent of the common cultivated 
Plum (P. domestica, Linn.). 

4. Wild Cherry. (P. serotina, Ehrh.) — This 
ranks among the largest and finest trees of the 


American forest, and is very widely diffused through 
the United States. In this State it is found through 
all the Districts, but is less common in the Lower, 
where the soil and climate are not so favorable to its 
growth. It is on the rich and cool declivities of our 
mountains that it acquires its full dimensions and 
attains a height of 60 to 80 feet, and a diameter of 2 
to 3 feet. The smooth straight shaft, symmetrical 
summit, bright green leaves and profuse spikes of 
white flowers, give it a character of much beauty. 
The fruit is nearly black (from which the tree is 
often called Black Cherry), slightly bitter, but with 
a pleasant vinous flavor, and was formerly much used 
as a cordial in spiritous infusion. The wood is of a 
light red tint which deepens with age, is compact 
and fine grained, and not liable to warp when prop- 
erly seasoned. If selected from the part of the 
trunk near the branches, it is almost equal to Mahog- 
any in appearance. It was once extensively used in 
nearly all kinds of cabinet work, but has been pretty 
much superseded by Mahogany and Rosewood. The 
bark of this tree is a valuable tonic, and forms the 
basis of some quack medicines. 

5. Wild Red Cherry. (P. Pennsylvania, Linn.) 
— Chiefly found at the North, but within our limits 
grows sparingly upon Black, Grandfather, and a few 
others of our highest mountains. I have but once 
heard it designated by any distinctive name, viz., 
Macnoly, which may possibly be a corruption of 
Magnolia, and so a misapplication. It is 20 to 30 


feet high. The flowers grow in clusters from lat- 
eral buds, and not in racemes from the end of the 
branchlets, as in the preceding. The fruit is small 
and red, with a thin, sour flesh. The bark of the 
trunk is a light red. The wood is reddish and fine- 
grained, but the tree is too small to admit of much 

6. Mock Orange. (P. Caroliniana, Ait.) — This 
much admired species is confined to the neighbor- 
hood of the Ocean, and is not native, I think, much, 
if any, north of the Cape Fear. From thence south- 
ward it is rather common along the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts. It is 20 to 30 feet high, in proper soil 
farther south becoming 40 to 50, with thick oval 
summit, clothed with evergreen leaves and casting a 
deep shade. The racemes of white flowers (growing 
from the fork of the leaves) are numerous and showy. 
The fruit is black, globular, not eatable, and remains 
all Winter on the tree. The wood is rose-colored and 
fine-grained, rather brittle, I think, but is not abun- 
dant enough to be of use in the arts, and is not supe- 
rior to others more easily obtained. The chief value 
of the tree is as an ornament, for which it is very 
extensively cultivated about houses, either singly or 
as borders and hedges to private grounds throughout 
the Lower Districts of the Southern States, thriving 
very well in sandy soils. 

Devil Wood. (Olea Americana, Linn.) — This 
has about the same range with the Live Oak, and, 
like that, is found but a short distance from the coast. 


I am not informed of any popular name by which it 
is designated in this State, and have above given the 
one appropriated to it farther south. As it is an 
Olive, it might properly be called American Olive, 
It is commonl}' about 10 to 15 feet high, but is some- 
times 30 and more. The leaves are evergreen, entire, 
thick and very smooth, and give the tree a very 
pleasing aspect. The fruit is rather larger than a 
buckshot, of a bluish-purple color, presenting a pleas- 
ant contrast to the foliage. The flesh is rather thin 
over a hard stone, and not eatable. The bark is of 
a whitish green. The wood has a fine grain, and 
when dry is exceedingly hard, and very difficult to 
cut or split, which may furnish a clue, perhaps, to 
the origin of its name. This tree is well worthy of 
culture. I have seen it in private grounds under the 
name of Dahoon Holly ; but the latter is a very dif- 
ferent thing, being a true Holly or Ilex. 

The remainder of this Group, with the exception 
of the Crab Apple and Persimmon, have fruit which 
would popularly be called Berries, and I therefore 
bring them together, though the first eight succeed- 
ing genera would not be so called by Botanists. 

1. Holly. (Ilex opaca, Ait.) — ; Common south of 
New York, and well known through the whole of our 
State. It is 30 to 40 feet high, and 12 to 15 inches 
in diameter. The wood is heavy, with a fine, com- 
pact grain, and takes a brilliant polish. When dry 
it is very hard, and serves well for pulleys, screws, 


etc. The black lines inlaid in mahogany furniture 
are often the dyed wood of this tree, intended to 
simulate ebony. The berries are purgative, and 15 
or 20 of them will produce vomiting. The fine form 
of this tree, with its evergreen leaves and scarlet ber- 
ries, gives it much beauty, especially in Winter ; but 
it is said to be less attractive than the European 
Holly. For avenues and hedgerows we have few 
trees superior to it. 

2. Dahoon Holly. (I. Dahoon, Walt.') — A shrub 
or small tree from- 6 to 25 feet high, growing on the 
borders of the Pine-barren ponds and swamps of our 
Low Country, from Virginia to Florida. The leaves 
are 1 to 2 inches long, I to i inch wide, entire, or 
with a few sharp teeth near the upper end, evergreen. 
The berries are red, as in the Holly and Yopon, and 
the plant is well worthy of cultivation. 

3. Yopon. (I. Cassine, Linn.) — An elegant shrub, 
10 to 15 feet high, but sometimes rising into a small 
tree of 20 to 25 feet. Its native place is near salt 
water, and it is found from Virginia southward, but 
never far in the interior. Its dark evergreen leaves 
and bright red berries make it very ornamental in 
yards and shrubberies. The leaves are small, ^ to 1 
inch long, very smooth, and evenly scalloped on the 
edges with small rounded teeth. In some sections 
of the Lower District, especially in the region of the 
Dismal Swamp, these are annually dried and used 
for tea, which is, however, oppressively sudorific, — 
at least to one not accustomed to it. The Mate, or 


Paraguay Tea, of South America, is of the same 
genus as this, (the I. Paraguayensis,) but a.very dif- 
ferent species. Our Yopon is the article from which 
the famous Black Drink of the Southern Indians was 
made. "At a certain time of the year they come 
down in droves from a distance of some hundred 
miles to the coast for the leaves of this tree. They 
make a fire on the ground, and putting a great kettle 
of water on it, they throw in a large quantity of 
these leaves, and setting themselves around the fire, 
from a bowl that holds about a pint they begin 
drinking large draughts, which in a short time occa- 
sions them to vomit freely and easily. Thus they 
continue drinking and vomiting for the space of two 
or three days, until they have sufficiently cleansed 
themselves ; and then every one taking a bundle of 
the tree, they all retire to their habitations." 

4. (I. decidua, Walt.) — This and the next three 
have deciduous leaves, and have not been honored in 
this State, as far as I know, with popular names. 
This is common along shaded ravines and branches 
throughout the Middle District, and is from 6 to 15 
feet high. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, with 
rounded teeth on the edges, narrow and tapering 
down into a short stem, somewhat hairy on the veins 
of the underside, otherwise smooth. Berries red, in 
clusters, each containing 4 to 6 bony seeds, that are 
ribbed on the back. 

5. (I. ambigua, Chapm.) — A shrub or small tree 
confined to our mountain region in this State, though 


found elsewhere to the North and South, and from 8 
to 20 fe§t high. The leaves are 3 to 5 and sometimes 
6 inches long, about half as broad, with fine sharp 
teeth on the edges, smooth on both sides, and taper- 
ing at the upper end. The berries are red, not in 
clusters, and with seeds as in No. 4. 

6. (I. verticillata, Gray.) — This occurs in all the 
Districts, and in various soils, 2 to 10 feet high, and has 
clusters of bright scarlet berries which hang on through 
the Winter. In some States it is called Winterberry. 
The leaves are about 2 inches long, of varying width, 
but generally broader toward the upper end, coarsely 
toothed, paler and somewhat downy on the underside. 
The seeds are smooth and even. A decoction of the 
bark is a popular application to old sores. 

7. Gallberry. (I. glabra, Gray.) — This and the 
next species are evergreen shrubs, indiscriminately 
called by the above name, sometimes Galls, more 
rarely Inkberries, names apparently derived from 
their black bitter berries. This is from 3 to 5 feet 
high, very common in the Branch swamps of the 
Lower District, and giving its name of Galls or Gall- 
bays to the low places chiefly occupied by it. The 
leaves are very smooth and green, sparingly toothed, 
1 to 1£ inch long, and about half that width. 

8. Tall Gallberry. (I. coriacea, Chapm.) — 
This grows in similar situations with the preceding, 
having the same habit and appearance, but full 
twice as large, the leaves also much larger, and either 
entire or with scattered sharp teeth. 


1. Dogwood. (Cornus florida, Linn.) — Common 
throughout the United States, and mostly k*nown by 
this name, but sometimes called Boxwood. From the 
showiness of its flowers, and the value of its wood 
and bark, it possesses considerable interest. Its 
usual height is from 12 to 20 feet, but is sometimes 
30 and 35. The wood is heavy, hard and fine 
grained, and takes a fine polish. Pieces cannot be 
had of sufficient size for large work ; but for the 
smaller sorts of mechanical and agricultural imple- 
ments, such as cogs of mill wheels, harrow teeth, 
mallets, wedges, names, etc., the well seasoned wood 
is well adapted and much used. The young shoots 
are used for light hoops. The inner bark is an excel- 
lent substitute for Peruvian Bark in intermittent 
fevers. The fresh article is apt to produce pain, 
which can be prevented, however, by mixing it with 
Virginia Snake Root. After being dried for a year, 
this precaution is unnecessary. A very good Ink 
can be made of this bark in place of Galls. A pretty 
variety of this tree with reddish flowers is occasion- 
ally met with. 

2. Swamp Dogwood. (C. sericea, Linn.) — This 
and the remaining species of the genus are only 
shrubs, but are placed here for the purpose of having 
all the species of a genus together, as I have done in 
other genera. With the exception of the last species, 
they all have their leaves opposite, as in the Dogwood. 
This is the only one of them which has received 
notice enough in this State, so far as I have discov- 


ered, to get a name. It is found in low woods in the 
Middle and Upper Districts, has purplish branches, 
is from 6 to 10 feet high, and having rather broad, 
pointed leaves, which are smooth above and with a 
silky down beneath. The flowers are white, in flat- 
topped clusters, succeeded by pale-blue berries. 

3. (C. stricta, Linn.) — This is 6 to 15 feet high, 
with brownish or reddish branches, found only in the 
wet lands of the Lower District. The leaves are 
about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide, tapering to a 
point at the upper end, the edges slightly uneven, 
smooth on both sides, paler and with prominent 
veins on the underside. The flowers and pale-blue 
berries are much as in No. 2. 

4. (C. paniculata, L'Her.) — A branching shrub, 4 
to 8 feet high, with gray branches, found in this 
State only in our mountain counties. The leaves 
are only 2 to 3 inches long, with a tapering point, 
smooth, whitish on the underside. The white flow- 
ers are in longer and looser clusters than in the two 
preceding, and the berries white. 

5. (C. alternifolia, L'Her.) — I have met with this 
only on the higher mountains. It is the only one of 
this genus of Cornels — this being the common name 
of the shrubby Dogwoods — which has the leaves 
alternating on the branches, instead of being oppo- 
site to each other in pairs. It is 10 to 15 and 20 feet 
high, the branches also alternate, greenish, streaked 
with white. The leaves are about 3 inches long, 
hoary and slightly hany beneath, and pointed at the 


end. The flowers are whitish, in a loose flat topped 
cluster ; the berries dark bine or bluish black. 

Hackberry. (Celtis occidentals, Linn.) — Com- 
mon over the United States, sometimes called Nettle 
Tree, and scatteringly found in all parts of North 
Carolina. It is occasionally seen as a shade tree in 
our streets, and is admired by some for its dark green 
foliage, deep shade and rather graceful branches. 
The bark of the trunk and larger branches is rough- 
ened by small, ridged excrescences. The leaves are 
about 2 inches long, and rather peculiar in having 
one side perceptibly smaller than the other. The 
berries are about I or J of an inch in diameter, of a 
mahogany color, with a sweetish but thin flesh, 
enclosing a globular nut. This tree is from 50 to 70 
feet high, and 18 to 20 inches in diameter. The 
wood does not appear to be used for any important 

There is a shrubby form of this (var : pumila) 
occasionally met with in the Lower and Middle Dis- 
tricts, 3 to 10 feet high, and with smaller, thinner 
leaves, but easily recognized by those w T ho are famil- 
iar with the larger form. 

1. Black Gum. (Nyssa aquatica, Linn.) — Com- 
mon in swamps and shallow ponds of the Lower and 
Middle Districts, often called Sour Grum or Gum 
Tree. It is from 30 to 45 feet high, 12 to 18 inches 
in diameter. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, of a 
dark green and shining above, and somewhat downy 
underneath when young. The fruit is commonly in 


pairs, of a dark blue color, borne on a common stem 
from i to 1 inch long. The wood of this tree has its 
fibres so interwoven in various directions as to make 
it nearly impossible to be split, and it is therefore 
used (especially the yellow variety, known as the 
Yellow Gum) for the hubs of wheels. It is also 
employed for making hatters' blocks, the cogged 
cylinders in mills for beating rice, and for caps to 
masts. The roots are in domestic use for large 
corks, for which, on account of their compressibility 
and lightness, they answer very well. The crimson 
hue of the foliage, after frost, of this and the next 
species, contributes much, with that of the Red 
Maple, Sassafras, etc., to give that peculiar brilliancy 
to our autumnal scenery so often noticed by for- 

2. (N. multiflora, Wang.) — With us this tree 
seems to be entirely confounded with the preceding, 
and is also called Black or Sour Gum, In some of 
the States it is also called Tupelo or Pepperidge. 
This tree, however, grows mostly in the uplands in 
rich, generally moist, soils, and is larger every way. 
It is from 30 to 60 feet high, and 1 to 2 feet in diame- 
ter. The leaves are 2 to 6 inches long, with a white 
down underneath, especially when young, rather 
thick, and shining. The berry is about J inch long. 
The wood is like that of No. 1. 

3. Cotton Gum. (N. uniflora, Walt.) — This is a 
Southern tree, having its Northern limit in South- 
eastern Virginia, and confined to the deep swamps of 


the Lower Districts. It is 60 to 80 feet high. The 
leaves are 5 to 8 inches long, with a few large teeth 
on the edges, and a soft whitish down underneath. 
The fruit is an inch or more long, and of a deep blue 
color. The wood is like that of the two preceding, 
but is softer, and is indeed the softest wood Ave have. 
As it does not split and is very easily worked, it is 
manufactured into light bowls and trays. The roots 
are used for making floats to buoy seines, and are a 
very fair substitute for cork where elasticity is not 

Sassafras. (Sassafras officinale, Nees.) — No 
plant in the United States is perhaps more exten- 
sively diffused than this. In favorable soils it is 40 
to 50 feet high, while in poor ground and in the bor- 
ders of old fields it flowers at the height of 4 to 6 
feet. It is common in the Lower and Middle Dis- 
tricts, but is rare in the more elevated parts of 
the Upper. It is found of largest dimensions in 
the Middle District. What is known as the White 
Sassafras prevails in the Lower District, the Bed 
Sassafras in the others, their differences depending 
apparently upon a difference of soil. The wood is 
said to be durable, and is used for fence posts as 
well as for the rafters and joists of buildings. It is 
said also to be free from attacks of worms, and that 
bedsteads made of it are never infested by insects. 
The roots, and also the flowers, are the basis of some 
diet drinks which are thought by some to be service- 
able to the human system in Spring and Summer. 


The reputed virtues of the root caused it to become 
one of the first of our native products introduced 
into Europe, and ship loads were carried thither in 
the earlier settlement of this country. The bark of 
the root is a powerful aromatic stimulant, and has 
been used in medicine more than 200 years. The 
young buds and ends of branches contain a good deal 
of mucilage, and are sometimes used as a substitute 
for Okra in soups, — where the latter cannot be had. 
Red Bay. (Persea Carolinensis, Nees.) — This 
extends from Virginia through the Lower Districts 
of the Southern States to Louisiana, appearing to be 
confined to the branch swamps within the range of 
the Long-leaved Pine. It is a small tree or shrub 
here, but in the vicinity of the Gulf it reaches a 
height 50 and 70 feet. The evergreen leaves are 2 
to 4 inches long, 1 or more wide, smooth and green 
above, pale beneath. The shrubby form has the 
leaves larger and the underside clothed with a gray 
down. They have a strong aromatic odor very like 
that of the European Laurel and may be Used in the 
same manner in cookery and medicine. An aromatic 
distillation like the Bay Rum of the West Indies 
could doubtless be obtained from them. The wood 
is of a beautiful rose color, strong and durable, with 
a very fine compact grain, and is susceptible of a 
brilliant polish. Before Mahogany came into such 
extensive use, articles of furniture of great beauty 
were made from it at the South, the best having the 
appearance of watered satin, and they are still found 


in the houses of some of the older families of the 
country. I have heard of a single log in Florida 
sawed into veneering and sold for 8400. In this 
State it is seldom found of sufficient size for any 
very important uses. 

Palmetto. ^Sabal Palmetto, R. & S.) — Cape 
Hatteras is, or was, the northern limit of this Palm, 
from whence southward it becomes more abundant 
in the vicinity of the Ocean. This is the only repre- 
sentative in the United States of a large and remark- 
able class of trees mostly confined to the Torrid Zone. 
A trunk 40 or 50 feet in height, of uniform diameter, 
with a tufted summit of large brilliant green, fan- 
shaped leaves, and so wholly different in structure 
and aspect from all our other forest trees, is a very 
noticeable and attractive object on our coast. 

The trunk of this tree is of great value in the con- 
struction of wharves, as they are not subject to 
injury from sea-worms. They have been found ser- 
viceable in structures for defence, since balls pass 
with difficulty through the wood as through cork, 
.and the wood closes upon the perforation instead of 
splitting. The rarity of the tree in this State ren- 
ders it of little economical importance here. It is to 
be deeply regretted, however, that a reckless indiffer- 
ence to the future, which has been charged as a char- 
acteristic of Americans, is likely to efface, at no very 
distant time, every vestige of this interesting orna- 
ment of our coast. The inner portion of the young 
plant is very tender and palatable, somewhat resem- 


bling the Artichoke and Cabbage in taste (hence its 
name of Cabbage Tree'), and is often taken for pick- 
ling, and the stock is mined by the process. Thus 
for a pound or two of pickles, no better either than 
many other kinds, the growth of half a century is 
destroyed in a moment, and posterity left to the 
wretched inheritance of vain mourning for the loss 
of the greatest beauty of our maritime forest. 

2. Dwarf Palmetto. (S. Adansonii, Guerns.) 
— This is but 3 or 4 feet high, never forming a trunk 
like the preceding, and found only in the Lower Dis- 
trict. The leaves of both these species are employed 
in the manufacture of palm-leaf hats. 

Pride of India, or China Tree. (Melia Azed- 
arach, Linn.) — Is a common shade tree of streets and 
yards in the Lower District, and occasionally is seen 
in the lower part of the Middle District. It is quite 
naturalized in the former region, to which it is well 
adapted by its free growth in sandy soil. It is from 
25 to 40 feet high, with a spreading top, and its dark 
green compound leaves and large loose clusters of 
fragrant lilac-colored flowers make it quite ornamen- 
tal. The timber is of a reddish hue, and said to be 
strong and durable ; but is seldom used. The leaves 
pounded and mixed with lard constitute a Persian 
remedy for a cutaneous disease, better treated, per- 
haps, with sulphur. The berries are reputed poison- 
ous, as well as most other portions of the tree. 
Robins feeding upon them in the Spring are so 
stupefied as to be easily caught. 


Buckthorn. (Buinelia lycioides, Gsert.) — A small 
tree from 15 to 25 feet high, found from North 
Carolina to Louisiana, rather sparingly in this State 
from the coast to Lincoln County. Its leaves are 
entire, smooth on both sides, about 2 inches long and 
I of an inch wide, with short stems. The flowers are 
whitish and small, growing in a thick cluster in the 
fork of the leaves, succeeded by a black, cherry-like 
fruit, about the size of a pea. The wood is exceed- 
ingly hard and heavy, with an irregular grain, and 
would doubtless be useful for mechanical purposes, 
were it not too rare to attract much attention. 

Yellow Wood. (Symplocos tinctoria, L'Her.) 
— Also called Sweet Leaf and High Bush Laurel, It 
does not extend much, if any, north of James River. 
In this State it occurs from the coast to the moun- 
tains, but is most multiplied in the Lower District. 
In poor soils it is only a shrub 2 to 6 feet high ; but 
in those which are fertile, as on the borders of 
swamps, # it becomes a small tree, 20 to 25 feet high 
and 6 to 8 inches in diameter. If the trunk be 
wounded in Spring, it exudes a milky, offensive juice. 
The leaves, which are 3 to 5 inches long, are sweet 
to the taste but rather dry, and greedily eaten by 
cattle and deer in Winter. They afford, by decoc- 
tion, a beautiful yellow color, which is fixed by a lit- 
tle alum, wherewith cotton, woollen and silk, are 
dyed. It is not much used, however. The fruit is a 
small one-seeded berry. The wood is soft and value- 


MAGNOLIAS. — Of this universally and deserv- 
edly admired genus there are seven species in the 
United States, all of which are found within our 
borders. They all have an aromatic and somewhat 
bitter bark. The fruit is a fleshy cone, from the 
cells of which the scarlet berries are expelled and 
hang for some days by elastic cords. The berries of 
most become quickly corrupted, but may be pre- 
served for use in damp moss. 

1. Magnolia. (Magnolia grandiflora, Linn.) — I 
retain the common designation of this tree, though 
we have six others equally entitled to the name. 
Farther south it is often called Big Laurel. The 
northern limit of this tree is in Brunswick County, 
south of the Cape Fear ; but it flourishes vigorously 
in cultivation through all the lower part of the State. 
Its usual height in the forests is from 50 to 70 feet, 
but has been found 90 feet high, and has a handsome 
form. The leaves are 6 to 10 inches long, evergreen, 
very thick and leathery. The white fragrant flow- 
ers, 6 to 8 inches broad, contrasting strongly with 
the dark green foliage, make this perhaps the most 
beautiful tree in the United States. The timber of 
this tree is soft and very white, but is little used. 

2. Sweet Bay. (M. glauca, Linn.) — The small- 
est and most widely diffused of our Magnolias, it 
being common in the maritime districts from Louis- 
iana to New Jersey, and in a single locality north of 
Boston. In this State it is seen along branches and 
bays throughout the Lower District, and in similar 


situations, though not common in the Middle Dis- 
trict. It is from 12 to 25 and 30 feet high, some- 
times flowering at the height of 5 to 6 feet. The 
leaves are small, the white under-surface contrasting 
pleasantly with the pale green of the upper. The 
flowers are 2 to 3 inches broad, pure white, and of 
powerful but grateful odor. 

3. Umbrella Tree. (M. Umbrella, Lam.) — This 
is common in the Middle and Western States as well 
as in the -Southern. In this State it is met with id 
shaded deep rich soils from the coast to Cherokee, 
and is mostly called Cucumber Tree, a name more 
generally and properly given to the next species. It 
is from 25 to 35 feet high. The leaves are 18 to 20 
inches long, 6 to 7 broad, and acute at each end. 
The flowers are 7 to 8 inches broad, white, and not 
of pleasant odor. Though inferior in beauty to some 
others, it is an ornamental tree and deserving of cul- 

4. Cucumber Tree. (M. acuminata, Linn.) — 
This seems to be universally known by the name 
here given, and is so designated from the form of its 
cone or fruit, which, in this species, is narrower than 
in the others, and when green is not unlike a cucum- 
ber about 3 inches long. The tree is found from the 
Northern Lakes to the mountains of Georgia. In 
this State it grows only on the mountains, particu- 
larly of Ashe, Yancey and Burke, in moist fertile 
soil of declivities and on the banks of torrents. It is 
from 60 to 80 feet high, and 1 to 5 in diameter, com- 


paring well in dimensions with No. 1. The leaves 
are 6 to 8 inches long, 3 to 4 broad, and rounded at 
base. The flowers are 4 to 5 inches broad, white, 
with a bluish or yellowish tinge, and very slightly 
odorous. The wood is somewhat similar to that of 
the Tulip Tree, is fine grained and takes a good 
polish, but is not so strong and durable. As an 
ornamental tree it is much admired. 

5. Large-Leaved Umbrella Tree. (M. mac- 
rophylla, Michx.) — This and No. 3 derive their names 
of Umbrella Tree from the mode in which their leaves 
spread from the ends of the branches. It is a rare 
product east of the Alleghanies, having been found 
only on the Chattahoochie in Georgia, in Middle 
Florida, and in Lincoln County of this State. West 
of the mountains it is more common, though in 
scattering groups and at wide intervals. In Lincoln 
it occurs in several places not far from the road 
between Lincolnton and Tuckaseegee Ford; as near 
Smith's, the Moore Mine, and Huntersville, six, ten, 
and eighteen miles from the former place. It chooses 
cool, rather moist and fertile situations, is from 15 to 
30 feet high, and without any beauty of form. But 
its leaves and flowers surpass in size those of any tree 
or shrub in this country. The former are from 20 to 
30 inches long, occasionally even longer, clustered at 
the ends of the branches and spreading from them 
like an umbrella, their two sides rounded at the base 
and diverging like ears from the leaf-stem. The 
flowers are 12 to 14 inches broad, white, with a 


broad purple spot on the inner base of the petals, 
and fragrant. It bears cultivation very well in our 
Middle District. In the Lower District it is not so 
manageable, but can there be grafted on the native 
Umbrella Tree, as was successfully done by the elder 
Michaux in his garden near Charleston. 

6. Long-Leaved Cucumber Tree. (M. Fraseri, 
Walt.) — Found only in ravines of the mountains, 
where it is known by this name, and also as Wahoo 
and Indian Physic. It is confined chiefly to the 
mountains of the Southern States, and is nowhere 
more abundant than in Ashe, Yancey and Burke. 
It is 40 to 45 feet high, with a diameter of 12 to 15 
inches. The leaves are 8 to 9 inches long, 4 to 6 
broad, and though a third smaller, are very much 
like those of No. 5 in form ; the base in this, as in 
that, being divided into rounded lobes or ears. The 
flowers are 3 to 4 inches broad, pure white, and of 
agreeable fragrance. The cones are 3 to 4 inches 
long, and, like those of the Umbrella Tree, of a beau- 
tiful rose color when ripe. This tree bears removal 
remarkably well, it having been cultivated in the 
open air near Philadelphia, but it would probably 
require the protection of shade in our low country. 

7. Heart-Leaved Cucumber Tree. (M. cor- 
data, Michx.) — Often confounded with the Cucumber 
Tree, to which it bears a general resemblance, though 
it is a very distinct species. It is confined to declivi- 
ties of the mountains from Ashe County to Georgia. 
It has a regular oval summit, is 30 to 50 feet high, 12 


to 18 inches thick, with a straight trunk, the bark of 
which has some resemblance to that of Sweet Gum 
or of a young White Oak. The leaves are roundish 
and heart-shaped, 4 to 6 inches long, 3 to 5 wide. The 
flowers are yellow, the inside faintly streaked with 
red, and nearly 4 inches broad. The cones are about 
3 inches long and 1 thick. This is smaller than the 
Cucumber Tree, but is equally desirable in private 
grounds as well for its symmetrical form as for the 
beauty of its flowers and its luxuriant foliage. 

Service Berry. (Amelanchier Canadensis, Torr. 
and Gr.) — Universally known in our mountains 
under the name of Sarvices. In the Lower District 
it is called Service Tree and Wild Currant. In the 
latter section of the State, it is hardly more than a 
shrub, and is common along branches and swamps. 
In the former, it inhabits the shaded sides of the 
mountains, and is 15 to 25 feet high. The fruit is 
here much sweeter, more juicy and palatable, like 
the Medlar, than in other parts of the State, and 
trees are sometimes recklessly cut down to obtain it. 
It is purplish and about the size of some of our Red 
Haws. This shrub or tree, when displaying its pro- 
fusion of clustered white blossoms in early Spring, 
is not without beauty, and is found enumerated in 
the catalogues of some "northern nurseries as The 
Snowy Medlar. A name so promising has occasion- 
ally led to its importation into the State for the 
adornment of a garden or shrubbery ; but I have 
never known it preserved over one season's exhibi- 


tion, the owners apparently depreciating a beauty so 

1. Crab Apple. (Pyrus coronaria, Linn.) — Most 
common in the Northern and North-western States, 
but extending southward along the mountains, where 
alone it is seen in this State. In Yancey and Hay- 
wood Counties it is very abundant, usually about 15 
to 20 feet high, and 5 to 8 inches through ; but in 
some situations considerably larger. The leaves are 
cut or lobed, not unlike those of the Red Maple. 
The flowers are of great beauty and diffuse their 
grateful fragrance to a long distance. The fruit is 
too austere for eating, but makes excellent preserves 
and jelly, though requiring much sugar. 

A celebrated Cider Apple, known as Hughes's Crab, 
I suppose is a seedling from this species. 

2. Narrow-Leaved Crab Apple. (P. angusti- 
folia, Ait.) — This extends from Pennsylvania south- 
ward, chiefly in those regions not occupied by the 
former. It is rather common in our Lower and Mid- 
dle Districts, and reaches into the lower part of the 
Upper. It is of about the same height with No. 1, 
but the fruit and leaves are much smaller, the latter 
being narrow and merely toothed on the edge. The 
flowers are beautiful and frngrant, as in the other 

3. Choke Berry. (P. arbutifolia, Linn.) — A 
mere shrub 2 to 3 feet high, introduced here only to 
complete an account of the genus. The fruit is berry- 
like, as in the Mountain Ash, but has the same struc- 


ture as an apple, with seeds of the same appearance 
and taste. It grows in small clusters, and is rather 
dry and astringent. We have two varieties of this : 
— one, with a red or purple fruit, found on the bor- 
ders of branches and bays in the Middle and Lower 
Districts ; — the other, in the mountains, and having 
a purplish-black fruit. 

4. Mountain Ash. (P. Americana, D. C.) — 
This charming tree is but little known in this State, 
even in the mountains where it grows. At the 
North it is highly prized as an ornament in yards, 
especially for the beauty of its large clusters of scar- 
let berries, which hang upon the tree through the 
Winter. It is scarcely distinguishable from the Moun- 
tain Ash or Roivan Tree of Great Britain. It is not 
very rare on our higher mountains, from Ashe to 
Macon, where it is called Wine Tree (from a kind of 
liquor said to be made from it) and Mountain Sumach. 
The foliage is more like that of a Sumach than of 
any other of our trees ; and in this respect, as indeed 
in every other, the general aspect of the tree is so 
unlike that of -an Apple Tree, that none but a 
Botanist would suspect a relationship. The flowers 
are of a dirty white, in spreading clusters like those 
of the Elder, succeeded by berry-like scarlet fruit. 
In favorable soil this is from 12 to 20 feet high ; in 
rocky ground, often a mere shrub. 

Persimmon. (Diospyros Virginiana, Linn.) — 
Common in the United States from Rhode Island 
and New York southward, and in all the Districts 


of this State. It varies much in height according to 
situation and soil, but is usually from 30 to 40 feet, 
though sometimes as high as 60, with a diameter of 
18 to 20 inches. When standing alone it has a very 
symmetrical form and is a handsome tree. The 
heart-wood is of a brownish tint, hard, compact, 
strong and elastic, but is said to be liable to split. It 
has been used for large screws, mallets, shoe-lasts (con- 
sidered equal to those made of Beech), and for the 
shafts of vehicles, which are said to be better than 
those made of Ash. With us the wood does not 
appear to be much used. The inner bark is astrin- 
gent and tonic, and has had some reputation for 
being useful in intermittent fevers. The intolerable 
astringency of the green fruit is well known. When 
ripe it is liked by many, and is the basis of a bever- 
age, by no means despicable, called ''Simmon Beer, 
It is sometimes pounded up with bran, and the cakes, 
dried in an oven, preserved for making beer with the 
addition of hops and yeast. Brandy has been dis- 
tilled from the fermented fruit, which is said to 
become good with age. 

Mulberry. (Morus rubra, Linn.) — Well known 
throughout the Union, but most abundant in the 
Western States. It grows in all parts of this State, 
but is least abundant in the Lower District. It is 
from 50 to 70 feet high, and 1 to 2 in diameter. 
When in proper soil, and unobstructed in its lateral 
expansion by surrounding trees, this becomes a tree 
of fine form and casts a very thick shade. The 


heart-wood is yellowish, fine grained and compact, 
but lighter than White Oak. It has much strength 
and solidity, and is thought by many to be as dura- 
ble as Locust. It is much used in fencing and in 
ship and boat building. The leaves are too thick 
and rough for feeding silk-worms, though they have 
been used for the purpose in the absence of better. 
The fruit is deep red or purple, of a sweet and acidu- 
lous flavor quite agreeable to the taste. Though 
gently laxative, it is probably a wholesome fruit. 

The White 31ulberry (M. alba), a native of Asia, 
is occasionally seen about houses, and is the tree 
chiefly used on the old Continent for rearing silk- 
worms. The Chinese Mulberry (M. multicaulis) is 
only a variety of the Wfiite, of smaller size and larger 
leaves. The Black Mulberry (M. nigra) of Europe is • 
sometimes cultivated in this country, but I have not 
observed it in this State. The Otaheite or Paper 
Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), a native of the 
Pacific Islands, is common in our yards, and is com- 
mendable for its rapid growth and heavy shade, but 
becomes a nuisance from the numerous shoots spring- 
ing everywhere from its spreading roots. 

Cedar, or Red Cedar. (Juniperus Virginiana, 
Linn.) — Not uncommon throughout the country from 
New England to the Gulf of Mexico, but the soil and 
climate of the South are most favorable to its com- 
plete development. It is from 30 to 40 feet high, 
with a diameter of 10 to 12 inches, but is smaller in 
the mountains and western parts of the State than 


in the Lower District. In old fields solitary trees 
are sometimes seen of larger dimensions than are 
above given. It is not abundant enough, however, 
in any part of the State, to be used in the arts. The 
heart-wood is of a red color, but the sap is white. It 
is odorous, compact, fine grained and very light, but 
heavier and stronger than Cypress or White Cedar. 
It possesses durability in an eminent degree, and is 
applied to all purposes which require this quality. 
That which is grown near the coast is of better 
quality than what is produced farther inland. 

This tree varies so much in the color, length and 
spread of the leaves in different situations and at 
different ages, that some persons make two species of 
it, one of which they call Savin. They are, however, 
%ut one species. The berries of this tree have been 
a little employed in the United States in the prepara- 
tion of gin, as those of the Juniper are used in 
Europe. Boxes and cabinets made of the wood are 
exempt from insects, its odor being offensive to 


The remaining trees have all a dry fruit, but of 
various kinds, and no very intimate relationship — to 
be arranged in two Groups. 

The first Group includes those trees which have 
either flowers or fruit in somewhat the form of tas- 
sels, as in the Willow, Cottonwood and Birch. 



generally designated by the latter name in this coun- 
try, but they are true Poplars. Those of them called 
Aspens are remarkable for the easy vibration of the 
leaves when scarcely a breath of air is perceptible. 
This results from one end of the leaf-stem being 
flattened contrary to the plane of the leaf. The con- 
stant motion of the leaves is supposed to have been 
the reason for giving these trees the name of Popu- 
lus or Poplar, because they, like the populace, are 
never at rest. It is a more malicious spirit of slan- 
der that has given them the name of Women's 
Tongues. The wood of all the species is soft and 
brittle, but some of them are used in various kinds 
of light wood- work. 

1. Carolina Poplar. (Populus angulata, Ait.) • 
— This does not reach northward farther than south- 
ern Pennsylvania. It becomes more abundant in 
the low country of all the Southern States upon the 
marshy banks of rivers, in company with Cypress, 
Red Maple, etc. It is rare in the Middle District, 
but is sometimes cultivated there about houses. It 
is 60 to 80 feet high, with an expanded summit and 
pleasing foliage. The leaves are 3 to 5 inches long 
(on young shoots 6 to 8), thin, always smooth and 
bright on both sides, and their edges have small 
scalloped teeth. They are rounded at the base, and 
are marked with yellowish nerves. The buds are 
short, deep green, and not covered with gum. The 
young branches and annual shoots are angular, from 


which character its botanical name of angulata is 
derived. The wood does not appear to be used. 
This is very similar to the Cottonwood or Cotton Tree 
so common on the Western rivers. 

2. Cotton Tree. ' (P. heterophylla, Linn.)— A 
native of the Middle, Western and Southern States, 
yet is so rare as to escape general notice. I do not 
remember to have met with it in this State, except in 
rich swamp lands on the lower course of the Cape 
Fear.; but it probably occurs in similar ground else- 
where. It is a majestic, showy tree, 70 to 80 feet 
high, 2 to 3 in diameter, with a very thick, deeply 
furrowed bark. The young branches and shoots are 
round. The leaves, 3 to 5 inches long, and with 
rounded teeth, are covered on the underside with a 
thick soft down, which partially falls off with age. 
The wood is much like that of the preceding. 

3. Large Toothed Aspen. (P. grandidentata, 
Michx.) — Not so common in the Southern as in the 
Middle and Northern States. With us it belongs to 
the upper part of the Middle District, is about 40 
feet high, and has a smooth gray bark that seldom 
cracks. The leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, about the 
same breadth, with large open teeth on the edges, 
and the underside clothed when young with a thick 
white down which wholly falls away before the end 
of Summer. This tree is occasionally seen adorning 
the streets of our villages. 

The Lombard?/ Poplar (P. dilatata, Ait.), a native of 
Italy, is common in cultivation about old settlements. 


BIRCHES. — These are products chiefly of high 
latitudes, both on the Eastern and Western Conti- 
nents. In this State we have but a single species 
below the mountains, 

1. Red Birch. (Betuia nigra, Linn.) — Common 
on the banks of rivers from the coast to the moun- 
tains, and known here only as Birch. This is sufficient 
designation where no other species occurs,«but it is 
called Red Birch in those States and regions where it 
is accompanied by others. It is from 40 to 60 feet 
high, and 1 to 2 in diameter. It has wood of com- 
pact grain, and light reddish tint, but not of very 
high value, nor is it much used. It is sometimes em- 
ployed in this State for the railing of balustrades, 
and the like purposes. Hoops for casks may be made 
from the branches and shoots, but of inferior quality. 

2. Black Birch. (B. lenta, Linn.) — In our 
mountains, where alone this tree is found within this 
State, it is simply called Birch. The most common 
name for it in the United States is the one above 
given. In the mountains of Virginia it is called 
Mountain Mahogany ; in New England Sweet Birch 
and Cherry Birch. It is from 30 to 50 feet high, 
with a smoothish trunk, resembling that of a Cherry 
tree. The wood, freshly cut, is of a rosy hue, which 
becomes darker by exposure, and similar to that of 
Wild Cherry, and is used, like that, for several sorts 
of cabinet work. It has considerable strength, is of 
fine close grain, and susceptible of a brilliant polish, 
and is the most valuable of all the Birches known, 


though hardly equal to Wild Cherry. Furniture 
made of it, as chairs, tables, etc., will, in time and by 
careful use, acquire very much the appearance of 
Mahogany. The leaves and blossoms have consider- 
able fragrance, and the bark of the young shoots has a 
delightful spicy flavor like that of the Mountain Tea or 
Spicy Wintergreen. The tree is one of much beauty, 
with dark.graceful foliage, and a symmetrical form. 

3. Yellow Birch. (B. excelsa, Ait.) — This is a 
northern tree, as south of the mountains of New 
York, with the exception of small patches in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, and the three or four stocks 
which I found near the (highest) summit of Black 
Mountain, it is unknown. Its yellowish-silvery bark, 
scaling off in thin sheets, like that of the Paper or 
Canoe Birch, will at once distinguish this from the 
two preceding. It is about 25 feet high. The tim- 
ber is rather inferior to that of Black Birch. It is a 
handsome tree, and its twigs slightly aromatic. 

WILLOWS.— There are 20 or 30 species of these 
in the United States, nearly all of which belong ex- 
clusively to the North. A few, though they are of 
no importance, extend to this State and farther south. 
The value of some species in wicker-work is generally 
known. The articles manufactured from them are 
made from the young, slender and flexible twigs and 

1. Black Willow. (Salix nigra, Marsh.) — This 
is the only native Willow in the State that becomes 


a tree. It is 15 to 25 feet high, with a rough dark- 
brown bark, very common along streams from the 
coast westward. The wood is soft and of little use ; 
but when the stocks are of sufficient size, they are 
said to make durable light timbers for boats. The 
roots give an intensely bitter decoction, which is 
thought by some to be good for purifying the blood, 
and a remedy for intermittent fevers. 

2 Gray Willow. (S. tristis, Ait.) — A shrub 1 
to 2 feet high, very much branched, of a dull gray 
aspect on account of the young branches and leaves 
being covered with an ash-colored down or wool. 
The leaves are from 1 to li inch long with a hardly 
perceptible stem, narrow, sharp at each end, but ta- 
pering from the base towards the upper end, and with 
the veins prominent on the underside. I have met 
with this insignificant plant only in the mountain 

3. Bush Willow. (S. humilis, Marsh.) — Larger 
than the preceding, 2 to 4 feet high, but of similar 
general aspect, the leaves two or three times longer 
and broader, and found both in the Middle and Up- 
per Districts, rarely in the Lower. During Summer 
the branches of this and No. 2 have cone-like excres- 
cences on their ends. 

4. Silky-Leaved Willow. (S. sericea, Marsh.) 
— This is 3 to 6 feet high, with leaves 2 to 3 inches 
long, borne on conspicuous stems, pale, and with 
silky hairs on the underside. 

The Weeping Willow (S. Babylonica) is common, 


and the Yellow Willoiv (S. vitellina), occasionally 
seen in cultivation. 

Hornbeam. Ironwood. (Carpinus Americana, 
Michx.) — Among the commonest productions of the 
country and well known by one or other of these 
names. It is found on the banks of streams in all 
parts of the State, generally 12 to 15 feet high, but 
sometimes 25 to 30, with a diameter of 5 to 6 inches. 
The trunk has a smooth gray bark, and at the base is 
irregularly fluted or ridged. The wood is white, ex- 
ceedingly hard, compact and fine grained, but the 
small size of the tree forbids its use except for 
inferior purposes. 

Hop Hornbeam. (Ostrya Virginica, Willd.) — 
This and the preceding have characters and qualities 
so very similar that they are generally called by the 
same names. But the bladdery fruit of this looks so 
much like Hops that it can very easily be distin- 
guished through the Summer. It is only in the Up- 
per District that I have met with it, and very rarely 
there. It is 20 to 30 feet high, with a brownish 
finely furrowed bark, the trunk not ridged at the 
bottom like the preceding. The wood is like that, 
and also used for levers, &c, for which we have noth- 
ing better adapted, on account of its great strength 
and toughness. For mill-cogs, wedges, mallets and the 
like, both these species would, doubtless, answer well. 

The remaining Group includes a heterogeneous 
mass of dry-fruited Trees, but fortunately nearly all 


are so well known, that they will need no particular 

Sycamore. (Platanus occidentalis, Linn.) — This 
is the name generally given, I believe, to this tree in 
North Carolina ; but it is more extensively known in 
the United States as Buttonivood. In some sections 
it is called Water Beech and Plane Tree. The last 
would be most appropriate, if we were governed in 
our choice by the application of the names of kindred 
species in Europe. The Sycamore of Europe is a 
species of Maple, having no relationship with #hat 
we call by that name. 

This tree, like the Planes of the old Continent so 
much celebrated by the ancients, is among the largest 
in the Temperate Zones. It is common over the 
United States on the borders of streams, where the 
soil is moist and fertile, conspicuous for its white 
bark and the stately size of its trunk. In such situ- 
ations it is found throughout the State, but is least 
abundant in the Lower District. Although occa- 
sionally found here of large dimensions, it is not of 
such size as in the virgin forests of the West, where 
this tree has its peculiar home, and where it is some- 
times seen without branches to the height of 60 to 
70 feet, and with a circumference of 40 to 50 feet. 
A hollow section of a l^unk was once used in Ohio 
as a bar-room ; — the same, I believe, now exhibited 
in a New York Museum. This reminds us of the 
famous Plane tree of Lycia, mentioned by Pliny, 
whose hollow trunk gave shelter for a night to Licin- 


ius Mutianus and a retinue of eighteen persons. Its 
interior was 75 feet in circuit. The wood of our tree 
becomes reddish in seasoning, of a fine close grain, 
and takes a better polish than Beech, to which it 
bears some resemblance. As it is liable to warp, it is 
not much used in cabinet work, except for bedsteads. 
It decays rapidly by exposure to the weather, and is 
therefore suitable for such articles only as are 
thoroughly sheltered. The rapid growth, great size, 
and thick shade of this tree, render it valuable for 
avenues and shaded grounds. 

Sweet Gum. (Liquidambar Styraciflua, Linn.) — 
One of the most extensively diffused trees in North 
America, it being found from Southern New England 
to Mexico. It is from 40 to 70 feet high, and 2 to 3 
in diameter. The wood is reddish, compact, fine 
grained, and takes a fine polish. Though inferior to 
Oak, it is suitable for objects requiring toughness 
and solidity. When properly seasoned, it serves 
well in the upper frame-work of buildings, and lasts 
better than any of the Bed Oaks. It is sometimes 
employed for lining the inside of Mahogany furniture, 
to which it is well adapted by its color, lightness, and 
fine grain. Though inferior to Black Walnut and 
Cherry, it is sometimes used for similar purposes in 
the manufacture of furniture*; but is not durable un- 
less sheltered from the air. The bruised leaves have 
a resinous fragrance, and fresh ones are successfully 
used in cases of dysentery. The dusty matter in the 
ripe burs is only the abortive seeds. The fragrant 


gum is the hardened juice. This is a beautiful tree, 
especially in Autumn when the dying foliage has 
taken its hue of deep crimson, and should be oftener 
seen in private grounds. 

Tulip Tree, or Poplar. (Liriodendron Tulipi- 
fera, Linn.) — This tree is rarely surpassed in elegance 
of form, in size, beauty of foliage, or showiness of 
blossom, by any tree of the American forests. In 
some of the Northern States it is called White Wood 
and Canoe Wood. In Europe, where it has been long 
and extensively introduced, it bears the name of Tu- 
lip Tree (which has been adopted to some extent in 
this country), from the resemblance of its flower to 
that of a Tulip. This is much preferable to that of 
Poplar (which it bears in this and the Western 
States), because it has but little resemblance in any 
particular to the true Poplars. It is native in all 
parts of the State, but is not so common in the Lower 
District as in others. It is from 60 to 100 feet high, 
with a very straight tapering trunk, and has a diam- 
eter of 2 to 3 feet. There is a stock on the South 
Fork of Toe River, which is near 9 feet in diameter. 
The wood is fine grained, works easily and takes a 
good polish. It is heavier and more compact than 
that of the Poplars, The heart is yellowish, and the 
sap-wood white, though, when grown in dry gravelly 
soils the whole wood is white and coarser. These 
are distinguished as Yellow and White Poplar, the 
former being most valuable. For the rafters and 
joists of buildings the timber is the best substitute 


for Pine, Cedar and Cypress. The boards are often 
used for the exterior and interior work of houses, 
even for shingling, as they are durable and not liable 
to split from the influences of heat and moisture. 
They are much used by coach, chair and trunk 
makers, and are very valuable for all kinds of wood- 
work requiring lightness, strength and durability. 

The bark of the root, mixed with equal parts of 
Dogwood bark, is a domestic remedy in intermittent 
fever. Some physicians have employed it success- 
fully alone, or accompanied with laudanum, in re- 
mittent and intermittent fevers, cholera infantum, 
hysterical affections, and for worms ; but others have 
denied its efficacy. Dr. Darlington says that the 
bark of the root and young tree is a valuable aromatic 

LINN OR LIME TREES.— These are handsome 
trees, as well for their form as for the pleasing hue 
and fine shade of their foliage. They are known in 
the Northern States by the names of Lime Tree and 
White Wood, but more generally by that of Bass 
Wood. In Europe the species of this genus are called 
Linden and Lime Trees. The wood is white and soft, 
and is used for similar purposes with that of the Tu- 
lip Tree, where the latter is not found, but is softer 
and splits more readily. It is well adapted for turn- 
ers' work, and is extensively used in the manufacture 
of wooden ware. The inner bark, when macerated, 
separates into broad fibres, which are used for making 



coarse cordage and matting. In Europe this kind of 
stuff is called Bast (whence the name of Bass Wood), 
and large quantities are exported from Russia. The 
bark also contains a good deal of mucilage, from 
which liniments are prepared for burns and scalds. 
In Europe, the honey made from the flowers of the 
Linn is considered the best in the world, and when 
made exclusively from them, sells for more than 
double the price of any other. The flowers of our 
American species would very likely serve as well in 
improving the quality of honey. There are but 3 
species of Linn in the United States, and all are 
found in North Carolina. The flowers of the Linn 
are small, cream-colored, growing in loose clusters 
upon a common stem which is attached to the middle 
of a narrow, strap-like leaf or bract; — a character 
that will distinguish these trees from all others. 

1. American Linn. (Tilia Americana, Linn.) — 
This is found from Canada to Georgia ; in this State 
confined to the mountains and the upper part of the 
Middle District. It is a handsome tree, 50 to 80 
feet high, 1 to 4 in diameter. The leaves are 3 to 4 
inches broad, heart-shaped, but one side smaller than 
the other at the base, smooth or nearly so, and paler 
green on the underside. The timber of this species 
is considered more valuable than that of the others. 

2. White Linn. (T. heterophylla, Vent.) — 
More abundant in the Middle and Western States 
than elsewhere. In this State it is most common in 
the Upper District, but occurs sparingly in the Mid- 


die and Lower. It seldom exceeds 40 feet in height, 
with a diameter of 12 to 18 inches. The young 
branches have a smooth silver-gray bark, by which it 
can be distinguished in Winter from the other species. 
The leaves are quite large, 6 to 8 inches broad, deep 
green above, and with a silver-white down under- 

3. Southern Linn. (T. pubescens, Ait.) — This 
is confined to the Lower Districts of the Southern 
States, choosing cool fertile soils upon the borders of 
swamps and rivers. It is 40 to 50 feet high, resem- 
bling No. 1, of which it may be only a variety. The 
leaves are 2 to 4 inches broad, shaped as in No. 1, 
the edges with fewer and more distant teeth than in 
No. 2, and with a rusty, thin, vanishing down on the 

Sour Wood. Sorrel Tree. (Oxydendrum ar- 
boreum, -DC.) — This extends from Pennsylvania 
southward, especially along the mountain valleys. 
In our Lower District it is rare, not uncommon in 
the Middle, but is most abundant in the lower parts 
of the mountains. It is usually a small tree, but in 
some localities, as on the upper waters of the Ca- 
tawba, it attains a height of 50 to 60 feet, and a 
diameter of 12 to 15 inches. The wood is of no value. 
The leaves, which are not unlike those of the Peach, 
are acid like Sorrel, from whence its names are de- 
rived. These, in the absence of Sumach, are some- 
times used for dyeing wool of a black color. The 
small flowers, about the size and form of those of our 


swamp Huckleberry, are in large loose clusters, which 
hang in profusion over the branches with somewhat 
of a plume-like grace, and make this tree one of the 
ornaments of our woods. 

Loblolly Bay. (Gordonia Lasianthus, Linn.) — 
This pretty tree, belonging to the family of the Ca- 
mellias, belongs within the range of the Long-leaved 
Pine, and is there confined, I think, to the branch- 
swamps and bays within 100 miles of the coast. It 
is from 50 to 70 feet high, with a diameter of 18 to 
24 inches. When young, it is of a fine pyramidal 
form ; but with age the branches spread irregularly, 
and the top, owing possibly to the brittleness of the 
wood, seems subject to early decay. The leaves are 
evergreen, with sharply toothed edges. The flowers 
are about 2 inches broad, white, and somewhat fra- 
grant, and young trees in blossom are very attractive. 
The wood is of rosy hue, of fine texture and silky 
lustre, but is light and brittle, and subject to rapid 
decay, unless kept perfectly dry. The bark is valua- 
ble for tanning, but is not abundant enough for ex- 
tensive use. The fruit is a small, dry, woody capsule, 
i to | inch long. 

Snow Drop Tree. (Halesia tetraptera, Linn.) — 
Found but a short distance beyond the northern line 
of this State. In our Lower District it is very spar- 
ingly distributed. In the Middle District I have not 
seen it east of Surry and Mecklenburg, but from 
thence westward to Cherokee it is not uncommon 
along water courses, especially above that part of 


their course where they are generally turbid. It* is 
ordinarily a small tree, from 10 to 25 feet high ; but 
upon some of our mountain streams it acquires nearly 
double these dimensions. It is not of handsome 
form ; but its clusters of white bell-shaped flowers 
(similar to those of the garden Snoiv Drop) about half 
an inch long, give it an aspect of much beauty when 
in blossom. I have never seen it in cultivation, but 
it deserves a conspicuous place in the cool moist parts 
of ornamented grounds. The fruit is greenish and 
slightly juicy when young, becoming dry. It has 4 
winged angles, is about 1£ inch long, with a bony 
nut inside. 

Planer Tree. (Planera aquatica, Gmel.) — This 
tree, closely related to the Elm and the Hackberry, is 
rare in the Atlantic States and unknown north of 
the Cape Fear River. From thence southward it is 
found on the borders of streams and swamps, and 
may very easily be mistaken, at a little distance, for 
the Hornbeam. It is from 20 to 40 feet high, and 8 
to 15 inches in diameter. The wood is said to be 
hard and strong, but is too rare with us to be of any 
use. The leaves are about 1J inch long, and much 
like those of our Small-leaved Elm. The flowers are 
in a small, round greenish cluster about the size of 
small Peas and appearing before the leaves. The 
fruit is a nut covered with warty scales, quite small. 


Shrubs of North Carolina, 

Under this head will be included those woody 
plants which do not ordinarily exceed 20 feet in 
height, whatever may be their form. So many of 
these are without names, and there is such a variety 
in their fruits or seed-vessels, that I cannot make so 
intelligible an arrangement of them for popular use 
as I have done for the Trees. Still, I hope that most 
of them, and all that are of any importance, can be 
identified without much difficulty. They will be ar- 
ranged, like the Trees, according to the character of 
their fruit, under the two primary divisions of the 
Fleshy Fruited and Dry Fruited, beginning with the 

Quite a number of shrubs have been already de- 
scribed under the class of Trees, wherever a genus 
included both classes. 

RED HAWS. — Thorny shrubs, sometimes tree- 
shaped, with white flowers, mostly in flat topped 
clusters, and colored (generally red) fruit containing 
1 to 5 bony seeds. 

1. Scarlet Haw. (Crataegus coccinea, Linn.) 


— Grows in the Middle and Upper Districts, 6 to 12 
feet high, with stout thorns 1 and 2 inches long. The 
leaves are smooth and thin, about 2 inches long and 
broad, cut into several small segments on each side. 
The fruit is bright red, J inch or more long, and 

2. Washington Thorn. (C. cordata, Ait.) — 
I have seen this only in the Middle District. It is a 
very beautiful shrub when in blossom, as may be 
seen on the Cape Fear near Averasboro in May. It 
is from 10 to 20 feet high, the thorns about 2 inches 
long, and rather slender. The leaves are 2 to 3 
inches long, cut into 3 divisions somewhat like 
those of the Red Maple. The fruit is bright crimson, 
about I inch long. 

3. Parsley-Leaved Haw. (C. apiifolia, Michx.) 
— This, so closely resembling the Hawthorn of Eng- 
land, is found in the Lower and Middle Districts. 
The leaves are about 1 inch long, and much cut up 
into small divisions, from which this handsome shrub 
or small tree derives its name, and by ' which it is 
easily distinguished from all the other species. The 
fruit is red and about i inch long. 

4. Cockspur Thorn. (C. Crus-galli, Linn.) — The 
most abundant of our Thorns or Haws, and found in 
all the Districts. It is 10 to 20 feet high and armed 
with sharp thorns 2 inches or more long. The leaves 
are about 2 inches long, rather thick and stiff, shin- 
ing green above, somewhat tapering from the upper 
part downward, and toothed above the middle. The 


fruit is red, about § inch long. This is our best 
species for hedging. But it should be remembered 
that none answers well if left at random to an up- 
ward growth, and is not well laid and so regularly 
trimmed or cut in as to take a lateral growth and to 
branch freely near the ground. 

5. Black Thorn. (C. tomentosa, Linn.) — A 
shrub or small tree in the Middle and Upper Districts, 
with large clusters of flowers, which are f inch or 
more broad, and a round or pear-shaped, edible fruit, 
which is orange-red and about f inch long. The 
leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, of an oval or oblong 
form, finely toothed and sometimes cut at the summit, 
somewhat hairy on the underside, and more or less 
furrowed along the veins above. 

There is a form of this (var : punctata, Gray) very 
common on the tops of our mountains, with the 
leaves smaller, more narrowed towards the base, and 
the furrows on the upper surface deeper, and the 
veins more prominent beneath. The fruit is round, 
yellowish or* dull red, sprinkled with whitish dots. 

6. Narrow-Leaved Thorn. (C. spathulata, 
Michx.) — Not uncommon in the Lower and Middle 
Districts, 10 to 15 feet high, with quite small flowers 
and fruit, but rather ornamental. The leaves are 
smooth and shining, i to 1£ inch long, £ to i inch 
wide, toothed at the upper end and tapering from 
near the top down to the stem. The fruit is red and 
in numerous clusters. 

7. Summer Haw. (C. flava, Ait.) — A small tree 


15 to 20 feet high, in sandy woods, with fruit £ to f 
inch thick, pear-shaped, and greenish-yellow. The 
leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, wedge-shaped, the 
lower part tapering into a short stem with small dark 
glands on the edges. The flowers but from 2 to 5 in 
a cluster. 

8. Hairy Thorn. (C. glandulosa, Michx.) — A 
small tree with coarse bark and spreading branches, 
and the leaves, branchlets and flower stems covered 
with soft hairs, especially when young. The leaves 
are about 1 inch long, rather thickish, wedge-shaped, 
the edges generally dotted with dark glands. The 
fruit is small, round, and red. The flowers are 3 to 6 
in a cluster. 

9. Dwarf Thorn. (C. parvifolia, Ait.) — A small 
shrub 2 to 5 feet high, very common in sandy woods 
throughout the Lower and Middle Districts, and with 
a whitish down on most of its parts. The leaves are 
i to 1£ inch long, broad, wedge-shaped, toothed, with 
hardly any stem. Flowers solitary, or 2 or 3 together. 
Fruit round or pear-shaped, greenish-yellow, rather 
large and dry. 

Barberry. (Berberis Canadensis, Pursh.) — 
Found in Lincoln, thence westward, especially in 
Buncombe, Haywood and Macon Counties. It is not 
known to exist north of Virginia, and is the only na- 
tive Barberry in the United States. The European 
species (B. vulgaris) is thoroughly naturalized in 
New England. Ours is a pretty shrub, 2 to 4 feet 
high and somewhat prickly. The fruit is an oblong, 


red and acid berry, which makes an agreeable con- 
serve, and a cooling drink in fevers. The leaves are 
also slightly acid. It is probable that this, like the 
European species, which it closely resembles, would 
furnish a yellow color by boiling the roots in lye ; 
and that the inner bark of the stems would dye linen 
of a fine yellow with the assistance of alum. 


belong to one genus, but are distinguished — the 
former, by the small sharp thorns at the base of the 
leaves, sometimes the fruit being prickly, and gener- 
ally (always in the North Carolina species) by the 
flower stems having from 1 to 3 flowers ; the latter, 
by the absence of thorns, smaller fruit (never prickly), 
and the flowers numerous in long clusters. They 
are found only in the mountains. 

1. Prickly Gooseberry. (Ribes Cynosbati, 
Linn.) — Distinguished from the others by its prickly 
fruit, which is brownish when ripe, and eatable. 

2. Smooth Gooseberry. (R. rotundifolium, 
Michx.) — This is 3 to 4 feet high, the leaves 1 to 2 
inches broad, about half the size of the preceding, the 
fruit small, purple when ripe, and of fine flavor. 

3. Slender Gooseberry. (R gracile, Michx.) — 
Very similar to No. 2, but every way more slender 
and delicate, and quite rare. 

4. Fetid Currant. (R. prostratum, L'Her.) — 
Occurring chiefly upon rocks on our highest moun- 
tains and generally spreading on the ground. The 


berry is covered with bristles and is not pleasant 
flavored. The whole plant exhales a disagreeable 
musky odor, which will readily distinguish it. 

5. Bristly Currant. (R. resinosum # Pursh.) — 
This was discovered in our mountains by Fraser, I 
have not myself met with it. It is covered in every 
part, not excepting the fruit, with resinous glandular 
hairs, by which it may be recognized. 

HUCKLEBERRIES.— The fruit so called in this 
State is comprised in two genera ; the first (Gaylus- 
sacia) including those which have a black or blackish 
berry, and leaves generally covered with small gland- 
ular dots ; the second (Vaccinium) including those 
with a blue, red or greenish berry. The blue ones 
are known in some States as Blueberries or Bilberries. 
The red are Cranberries. The greenish one is in this 
State called Gooseberry and Beerberry. 

1. Blue Huckleberry. (Gaylussacia frondosa, 
Torr. and Gr.) — Common in the Lower and Middle 
Districts on the borders of low grounds, 2 to 3 feet 
high, with pale, somewhat wrinkled leaves, which are 
whitish underneath, and 1 to 3 inches long. The 
berries are dark blue, large and sweet, perhaps the 
finest flavored we have, ripening in June. 

2. Dwarf Huckleberry. (G. dumosa, Torr. and 
Gr.) — A low species about a foot high, with creeping 
roots, very common in dry woods of the Lower and 
Middle Districts. It is somewhat hairy and glandu- 
lar, the leaves broad, wedge-shaped, green on both 


sides, and the fruit smooth, black and insipid. A 
larger form of this (var : hirtella) has the berries also 

3. Blaqk Huckleberry. (G. resi»osa, T. and 
Gr.) — Belongs to the Middle and Upper Districts, 2 
to 3 feet high and much branched. The leaves are 
2 to 3 inches long, and thickly sprinkled with resin- 
ous atoms. The berries are black, shining and very 
pleasant. There is a white variety of this, found in 
the mountains by Mr. Buckley. 

4. Bear Huckleberry. Bearberry. (G. ur- 
sina, Gray.) — Found on the sides of the mountains 
south of the French Broad River, 2 to 3 feet high, and 
resembling No. 3. But in the latter the flowers are 
cylindrical ; in the Bearberry cup-shaped. The berry 
is purplish or dark red, insipid and dry, ripening in 
July and August. 

1. Swamp Huckleberry. (Vaccinium corym- 
bosum, Linn.) — Abundant in swampy grounds of the 
Lower and Middle Districts, and probably extending 
into the Upper. It is from 5 to 10 feet high, with 
very variable leaves, but generally thin, pale and 
smooth. The berries are large, deep blue, subacid 
and pleasant, ripening in May and June. 

There is a variety of this (var: atrococcum, Gray), 
having a similar range and locality and size, but 
much less common, with thicker leaves, which are 
white-downy underneath, and with berries dark blue. 
Dr. Hunter finds this variety with a white berry in 
Lincoln and Burke Counties. 


2. Pale Dwarf Blueberry. (V. Constablaei, 
Gray.) — About 1 foot high, abundant on the bald 
summit of Roan Mountain (where it was first dis- 
criminated by Prof. Gray,) and not unlikely on others. 
It is of a pale whitish aspect, with leaves 1 to 2 inches 
long, and blue sweet berries. 

3. (V. tenellum, Ait.) — Common on the borders of 
small swamps in the Lower District and extending 
somewhat into the Middle ; about 2 feet high, with 
green, angled branches. The leaves are i to 1 inch 
long, narrow, wedge-shaped, slightly toothed at the 
top, and of a bright green. Berries black, small, of 
little worth. 

4. Bristly Huckleberry. (V. hirsutum, Buck- 
ley.) — Discovered in the Cherokee Mountains by Mr. 
Buckley, and easily recognized by its bristly branches, 
leaves, flowers and fruit. 

5. Deerberry. Gooseberry. (V. stamineum, 
Linn.) — Very common all over the State in dry 
woods, 1 to 4 feet high, and very pretty when in 
blossom. The berries are greenish-white, sour and 
astringent, larger than any other of our Huckle- 

6. (V. erythrocarpon, Michx.) — A shrub 2 to 4 feet 
high, found upon Grandfather, Flat Top and Roan 
Mountains. The leaves are rather hairy and with 
small teeth on the edges. The flowers have long divis- 
ions that are rolled backwards precisely like those of 
the Cranberry. The fruit is small, reddish or purplish, 
and insipid, somewhat like that of the Bearberry. 


7. Sparkleberry. (V. arboreum, Michx.) — 
Found from the coast to Cherokee, 8 to 20 feet high, 
the leaves smooth, rather stiff and shining. They 
are evergreen, at least in the Lower District. The 
fruit is black and small, dry, granular and slightly 
astringent, but of pleasant flavor, ripening in Octo- 
ber. When in blossom it is quite a showy shrub. 
The bark of the root is very astringent, and is 
used in chronic dysentery. 

8. Creeping Huckleberry. (V. crassifolium, 
Andr.) — A small species with stems (1 to 2 feet 
long) creeping close upon the earth in Avet savannas 
of the Lower District. The leaves are small, i to i 
inch long, evergreen, thick and shining. The fruit 
is red, becoming black, tasteless. 

9. Cranberry. (V. macrocarpon, Ait.) — A small 
trailing plant with pale evergreen leaves, common in 
the mountain swamps of Ashe and Yancey, and also 
in Pasquotank, Hyde and other counties in the 
north-eastern part of the State. The fine acid fruit 
of this plant is well known and universally esteemed. 

Coral Berry. (Symphoricarpus vulgaris, Michx.) 
— A small shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, frequent in arid 
gravelly soils, especially by road sides, throughout 
the Middle District. The leaves are rather stiff, 
about 1 inch long, downy beneath. The flowers are 
of no beauty, but the compact clusters of dark red 
berries in the fork of nearly all the leaves, and which 
hang on through the Winter, have made it an object 
of attention among gardeners and florists. This is 


sometimes so much of a nuisance on plantations, on 
account of its creeping tangled roots, as to have 
gained the uncouth name of Devil's shoe-strings. 

Bermuda or French Mulberry. (Callicarpa 
Americana, Linn.) — Quite common in light soils and 
dry, open woods of the Lower District, especially 
along fence-rows and the borders of settlements. It is 
3 to 6 feet high, with coarse, rough, grayish unsightly 
leaves, which are 4 to 5 inches long and round- 
toothed on the edges. But in Winter the numerous 
clusters of light-purplish berries which encircle the 
summit of the branches at regular intervals for 12 or 
18 inches, give it a very striking and pleasing appear- 
ance. These berries are juicy, slightly aromatic and 
sweetish, and are sometimes eaten, but are probably 
not very wholesome. 

Mistletoe. (Phoradendron flavescens, Nutt.) — 
Well known throughout the State, and needing no 
description. With us it seems to prefer the Oaks 
and Locust, but at the North and West, Elms and 
Hickories. Deer are very fond of this plant. This 
is a different plant from the European Mistletoe, the 
aureus ramus of Virgil. 

1. High Blackberry. (Rubus villosus, Ait.) — 
This is our common Blackberry of the swamps and 
fallow lands, 4 to 10 feet high, and the leaves slightly 
hairy or smooth, and green on both sides. It is 
found throughout the State. The root of this is 
slightly astringent, and is a popular remedy for 


2. Low Blackberry. (R. cuneifolius, Pursh.) — 
Common in old fields and by road sides in the Lower 
and Middle Districts, 2 to 4 feet high, the leaves 
white and downy beneath. Smaller in all parts than 
No. 1, the berries generally sweeter. 

3. Dewberry. (R. trivialis, Michx.) — Generally 
well known under this name, but most abundant in 
the Middle District. This is a trailing species with 
smooth green leaves, growing mostly in dry soils, and 
with larger, sweeter fruit than the preceding. 

4. Swamp Blackberry. (R hispidus, Linn.) — 
A prostrate species like the preceding, found in the 
mountain swamps, but every way more delicate, with 
thinner leaves, and with weak prickles that hardly 
deserve the name. Fruit black, small and sour. 

5. Black or Purple Raspberry. (R. occiden- 
talis, Linn.) — Grows on the borders of woods and in 
thickets through the Middle District. The fruit is 
very pleasant but rather dry, and much inferior to 
the cultivated species. 

6. Flowering Raspberry. (R. odoratus, Linn.) 
— Found only in the mountains along rivulets and in 
cool, shaded ravines. This is without prickles, but is 
covered with clammy hairs, is 4 to 5 feet high, and 
has leaves 6 to 7 inches long, divided into about 5 
short segments. The flowers are quite ornamental, 
about 2 inches broad and looking like a small single 
Rose. The fruit is broad, red and dry, but pleasant 

1. Swamp Rose. (Rosa Carolina, Linn.) — This 


is from 3 to 6 feet high, is generally confined to low 
damp grounds, and has stout, hooked prickles. 

2. Wild or Dwarf Rose. (R. lucida, Ehrh.) — 
Generally prefers dry soils, and is found in all the 
Districts. It is about half the size of No. 1, has the 
leaves shining on the upper side, and has straight 
prickles, which will distinguish it from the preceding. 

3. Sweet Brier. (R. rubiginosa, Linn.) — Ex- 
tensively naturalized along roads and about settle- 
ments, especially in the Middle District, and easily 
recognized by the pleasant fragrance derived from 
the rusty colored glands on the underside of the 
leaves. This is sometimes known as the Eglantine. 

4. Cherokee Rose. (R. laevigata, Michx.) — Cul- 
tivated in the Lower and Middle Districts, often 
trained over fences, and, if well managed, serves 
well for hedging. It is remarkable for its smooth, 
dark, evergreen leaves and white single flowers. It 
is singular that the native region of this Rose is 

1. Elder. (Sambucus Canadensis, Linn.) — There 
is no portion of the State, except the higher parts of 
the Mountains, where this shrub is not found. Its 
leaves are smooth and its berries dark purple. The 
inner bark is of popular use in ointments for sores. 
An infusion of the leaves is sometimes used for ex- 
pelling insects from vines, &c. An infusion of the 
dried flowers is a domestic remedy for colds. The 
ripe berries afford a delicate test for detecting acids 
and alkalies. 


2. Red-Berried Elder. (S. pubens, Michx.) — 
Grows only on the higher Mountains above the 
range of the preceding, from which it is at once dis- 
tinguished by its red berries and the downy under- 
side of its leaves. It belongs chiefly to a high lati- 

1. Black Haw. (Viburnum prunifolium, Linn.) 
— Common in rather dry rich soils from the coast to 
the lower part of the Upper District, 8 to 15 feet 
high, handsome when in flower. The blossoms are 
small, white, in flat clusters, which are two or three 
inches broad, and destitute of a common stem. The 
leaves, 1 or 2 inches long, are smooth and shining 
above. The fruit is about half an inch long, bluish- 
black, sweetish and eatable. 

2. Possum Haw. (V. nudum, Linn.) — Has a 
similar range with No. 1, and grows in cold swampy 
grounds, 6 to 12 feet high. The flower-clusters in 
this are supported on a short common stem. The 
leaves are larger and of thicker texture than in the 
former, dull green above, and covered with rusty 
scales beneath. The fruit is a deep blue. In the 
Mountains I have heard this called Shawnee Haw. 

There is a form of this (var: angustifolium), with 
smaller, narrower, and brighter leaves, which I have 
met with in Henderson County. 

3. (V. obovatum, Walt.) — A shrub or small tree, 
growing on the banks of streams, but not common 
in this State. The leaves are i to 1 inch long, rather 
thick, smooth, broader at the upper end, and faintly 


toothed. The flower-clusters are without a general 
stem. The fruit is black. 

4. Sheep Beery. (V. Lentago, Linn.) — Found 
only in the Mountains, 10 or 15 feet high. The 
leaves are rather thin, 3 to 4 inches long, smooth, 
with a tapering point, sharply toothed, their stem 
and middle nerve beneath, together with the flower 
branches, sprinkled with rusty atoms. The fruit is 
first red, then bluish-black, and is eatable when fully 

5. ARR0W r -w T 00D. (V. dentatum, Linn.) — Grows 
in low grounds of the Lower and Middle Districts, 
but is not very common. It is 8 to 12 feet high, 
with ash-colored bark, and by the flowers and fruit 
would be at once recognized as belonging to the 
same genus as Nos. 1 and 2. The leaves are round- 
ish, 2 or 3 inches long, coarsely and sharply toothed, 
thin and smooth, the lateral veins quite straight, and 
deeply impressed above. The fruit is roundish and 
deep blue, and slightly rough. The young straight 
branches of this were used by the Indians for mak- 
ing arrows. 

6. Downy Arrow-wood. (V. pubescens, Pursh.) 
— Very similar to No. 5, but smaller, 3 or 4 feet 
high, the underside of the leaves downy, and grow- 
ing only in the rocky soil of the Mountains. 

7. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood. (V. acerifo- 
lium, Linn.) — A shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in the 
Mountains and on rocky hills of the Middle District, as 
low down as Orange, with leaves 3 or 4 inches long, 


shaped like those of a Maple. The berries are whitish, 
becoming purplish-black. The slender stems, by re- 
moving the pith, make good fuse-sticks for blasting, 
and will serve equally well for blasts of tobacco-smoke. 

8. Hobble-Bush. Tangle-Legs. (V. lantanoides, 
Michx.) — A small straggling shrub found in cold, 
damp places in the Mountains. The branches spread 
upon the ground, and, taking root at their ends, form 
well secured loops for tripping the feet of inexperi- 
enced wayfarers; a habit which has been revenged 
upon by the unlucky, in the names imposed upon it 
of American Wayfarer s Tree and the Devil's Shoe- 
strings. The leaves are 3 to 6 inches broad, heart- 
shaped, very veiny, the underside having a rusty 
down. The berries are first crimson, then black. 
The flowers on the margin of the broad clusters of 
this species are very large (by abortion), like those 
of the well-known Snow-ball of our Gardens, which 
is a species (V. Opulus) of this genus. 

Prickly Ash. (Aralia spinosa, Linn.) — Found 
in tolerably rich soil from the coast to Cherokee, but 
not very abundant in any locality. It is seldom 20 
feet high with us, and is remarkable for its straight, 
club-shaped, prickly stem or trunk, with the com- 
pound leaves spreading like those of a Palm from its 
summit. An infusion of the fresh bark of the root 
is emetic and cathartic, and is employed, as are also 
the berries, in spiritous infusion, in rheumatic affec- 
tions. These are thought by some to be also a valu- 
able remedy for the bite of a rattlesnake. 


Privet. (Ligustrum vulgare, Linn.) — Occasion- 
ally naturalized about settlements. Berries black. 
This is suited for low hedges. 

1. Spice Bush. (Benzoin ocloriferum, Nees.) — 
Known also as Spice Wood, Wild Allspice, and Fever 
Bush. Grows in damp woods throughout the State, 
and, wherever found, known under one or other of 
these names. It is a strongly scented shrub, smooth, 
3 to 6 feet high, with dark red berries, and leaves 3 
or 4 inches long. An infusion of the twigs is some- 
times used in country fevers, and for sickly cattle in 
the Spring. 

2. (B. melissaefolium, Nees.) — Belongs to the 
Lower and Middle Districts in low grounds and on 
the borders of shallow ponds, 2 or 3 feet high, leaves 
silky on both sides, 1 or 2 inches long, slightly heart- 
shaped ; berries red. I am indebted to Dr. McRee 
and Prof. Mitchell for my knowledge of this species. 

Pond Bush. (Tetranthera geniculata, Nees.) — 
Occupies small ponds in the Lower District, giving 
a gray smoky aspect to these localities. It is rarely 
met with in the lower part of the Middle District. 
It is 10 or 15 feet high, with smooth, zigzag branches, 
and small oval leaves, £ to 1 inch long, and red 

This and the genus next preceding are closely 
related to the Sassafras, and, like it, have small yel- 
lowish flowers which appear before the leaves. 

Leather-wood. (Dirca palustris, Linn.) — Widely 
diffused over the country, but in this State occurring 


sparingly upon shaded rivulets in the Middle and 
Upper Districts. It is 3 to 5 feet high, and the 
branches have such a tough and pliable bark that 
they make excellent ligatures, for which they were 
used by the Indians, and from which the shrub de- 
rives its name. The fruit is a small reddish berry. 

Carolina Buckthorn. (Frangula Caroliniana, 
Gray.) — A thornless shrub, 4 to 6 feet high, belong- 
ing to moderately fertile soils in the Middle and 
Lower Districts, but rare in the latter. The leaves are 
3 or 4 inches long, 1 or 2 wide, dark green, smooth and 
shining, and ribbed with very straight parallel veins. 
The berry is blackish, of the size of a small pea. 

1. Sumach. (Rhus copallina, Linn.) — Very com- 
mon throughout the State, usually 6 to 10 feet high, 
sometimes a small tree 15 feet high, readily distin- 
guished by its common leaf-stem being margined or 
winged between the leaflets. The crimson hairs on 
the berries possess a strong acid, (said to be Malic,) 
an infusion of which, with sugar, makes an agreeable 
cooling beverage, and, without sugar, is a very use- 
ful gargle for weak or sore throats. 

2. Smooth Sumach. (R. glabra, Linn.) — This is 
6 to 10 feet high, growing in the Middle and Upper 
Districts, and is remarkably smooth in all its parts. A 
milk} T juice issues from the wounded bark. The large 
clusters of red fruit are more compact than in No. 1, 
having an acid secretion as in that. The branches 
and leaves are astringent, and are used for tanning. 

3. Staghorn Sumach. (R typhina, Linn.) — Be- 


longs to the Upper District, 10 to 20 feet high, the 
branches and flower stalks densely and rather softly 
hairy, somewhat like a Deer's horn "in the velvet." 
The leaflets are narrow and tapering. The bark issues 
a milky juice, and the berries are acid, as in No. 2. 
The wood is orange colored and aromatic. The bark 
and branches are used for tanning. The large clusters 
of purple fruit, and a fine foliage, render this species 
quite ornamental. 

4. Dwarf Sumach. (R. pumila, Michx.) — This 
has a general resemblance to No. 3, especially in the 
dense hairiness of the young branches, but the leaflets 
in this are much shorter, broader and more coarsely 
toothed, and the plant is only 1 to 3 feet high, mostly 
spreading over the ground. It is rather rare, but oc- 
curs in the Lower and Middle Districts, especially in 
Mecklenburg, where it was originally discovered by 
the elder Michaux. Pursh has represented it as be- 
ing very poisonous, but it is perfectly harmless, as 
are all the preceding species. 

5. Poison Sumach. (R. venenata, DC.) — Found 
in all the Districts in cool swampy situations, where 
it is somewhat conspicuous by its smooth green bark 
and pink-colored leaf-stems. To most persons it is 
exceedingly poisonous, some even being affected by 
proximity to it, especially while rain or dew is evap- 
orating from it. Others, however, can handle it with 
safety. The juice of this is a good varnish, like that 
of the Japan Sumach (R. vernicifera), which is a very 
similar and was once supposed to be the same species. 


6. Poison Oak. (R. Toxicodendron, Linn.) — A 
small shrub, 1 to 2 feet high, well known by this name 
from the coast to the lower part of the Upper District. 
It is less poisonous than No. 5, but is too mischievous 
to be meddled with by persons who are sensitive to 
this class of poisons. The juice is an indelible ink 
upon linen. 

It has been stated very positively in some quarters 
that the dreaded disease, known in our Mountains 
and at the West by the name of Milk Sickness, is 
caused by the cattle eating of this Poison Oak. But 
our Lower and Middle Districts abound in this plant, 
where this disease is not now heard of, while in those 
portions of the Mountains where cattle are affected 
with it, and which I have examined with special ref- 
erence to ascertaining its origin, this plant is not 
found, nor any other poisonous plant which is not 
common elsewhere. Besides, it is well known that 
cattle do not take the disease if kept from those 
grounds till the dew has evaporated. Its cause is yet 
a mystery, but I am satisfied it is telluric. 

The Mountain Tea or Wintergreen, (Gaultheria 
procumbens, Linn.) so well known in the Mountains, 
rarely in the other Districts, for its aromatic spicy 
leaves and berries, is an evergreen shrub, but so small 
that it would not generally be considered such. 

The next two genera have a fleshy fruit, but too 
large to come under the class of Berries. They are 
well known by their names. 

1. Papaw. (Asimina triloba, Dunal.) — Not un- 


common in rich bottom lands of the Middle District, 
10 to 15 feet high, but in the primitive soil of the 
Western States sometimes 30 feet. The flowers are 
dull dark-purple, over an inch wide. The fruit is 
about 3 inches long by 1£ thick, yellow, and filled 
with a soft sweet pulp which is edible, but does not 
seem to be agreeable to most persons. The bark of 
the trunk and root exhales a very heavy unpleasant 
odor. The wood is remarkably light and spongy. 

2. Dwarf Papaw. (A. parviflora, Dunal.) — A 
small shrub similar to No. 1, but smaller every way, 
found in waste grounds in the Lower District, and in 
thin woods of the Middle and lower part of the Up- 
per District. It is from 2 to 5 feet high, the leaves 
4 to 6 inches long, (about half the size of the pre- 
ceding,) the greenish-purple flowers £ inch long and 
of unpleasant odor. Fruit in clusters, about an inch 

1. Spanish Bayonet. (Yucca aloifolia, Linn.) — 
A native of the coast from North Carolina southward, 
frequently cultivated in the Lower District, and very 
showy when capped by its large cluster of white bell- 
shaped flowers. It is 4 to 8 feet high, its stiff leaves 
(12 or 18 inches long) tipped with a very sharp 
thorny point, and their edges very rough. 

2. (Y. gloriosa, Linn.) — Found also on the sandy 
coast, similar to the preceding, but smaller, and the 
leaves smooth on the edges. 

3. Bear Grass. (Y. fllamentosa, Linn.) — Com- 
mon in sandy fields nearly throughout the State, well 


known by the thread-like filaments on the edges of 
the leaves, and admired for the beanty of its flowers, 
borne in clusters upon a naked stem 4 to 6 feet high. 

The two next genera would be most generally 
ranked among Stone-fruit, though the shell of the 
second is very thin, and covered by a very thin flesh. 

Fringe Tree. (Chionanthus Virginica, Linn.) — 
Sometimes called Old Mans Beard. We have no 
shrub of softer and more delicate beauty than this, 
when draped in its clusters of snow-white, fringe-like 
flowers. It is found northward to southern Pennsyl- 
vania. In this State it grows in all the Districts, but 
most abundantly in the Middle. It is sometimes 15 
to 20 feet high, but flowers at the height of 2 or 3 
feet. Its fruit has the appearance and odor of a green 
plum, but I have never seen it produce fruit in the 
Lower District. An infusion of the roots is a favor- 
ite remedy in long standing intermittents and other 
chronic diseases. 

Oil-nut. Buffalo Tree. (Pyrularia oleifera, 
Gray.) — A bush 3 to 6 feet high, abundant through 
our mountain range, and reaching north to the 
mountains of Pennsylvania. The leaves are 3 to 4 
inches long, becoming smooth, rather acrid to the 
taste, and oily. The fruit is an inch or more long, 
pear-shaped or roundish, with a thin shell and large 
oily kernel. The root has an unpleasant odor. 

The remaining Shrubs, including those with Nuts, 
are Dry-fruited and very various. The first Group 
will include such as have dry seed-covers, containing 


small seeds and opening by partitions. The first 
three genera have tubular small flowers like those of 
the Huckleberry and Sorrel Tree. 

1. Fetter-Bush. (Andromeda nitida, Bartr.) — 
Found only in the Lower District in low Pine bar- 
rens. It is 2 to 5 feet high, with the branches three- 
angled, smooth throughout ; the leaves evergreen and 
shining and rather thick, 1 to 2 inches long, not 
toothed; the flowers clustered in the forks of the 
leaves, white or reddish, with a sort of hone} r odor, 
opening in March and April. 

2. Stagger-Bush. (A. Mariana, Linn.) — Grows 
in the Lower and Middle Districts, on the margin of 
low grounds. It is 2 to 3 feet high and smooth. 
The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, not toothed, dull 
green ; the flowering branches generally destitute of 
leaves; the flowers in clusters along the branches, 
near £ inch long, white and showy, opening in April 
and May. 

3. (A. speciosa, Michx.) — A very handsome shrub 
growing in low wet grounds of Pine barrens in the 
Lower District, 2 to 5 feet high and smooth. The 
leaves are 1 to 1£ inch long, toothed, dull green, 
sometimes covered on the underside with a very white 
bloom. The flowering branches are free from leaves, 
6 to 12 inches long and very showy. The flowers 
are larger than in No. 2, more bell-shaped, opening in 

4. Pepper-Bush. (A. ligustrina, Muhl.) — This 
occurs in all the Districts, but only in the lower part 


of the Upper. It is 3 to 4 feet high, somewhat hairy. 
The leaves are about 2 inches long, sharp pointed, 
finely toothed, paler underside. The flowers are 
small, almost globular, scurfy, in small clusters that 
are leafy. 

5. (A. floribunda, Pursh.) — Rather rare, and be- 
longing to the mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, the 
younger branches reddish and covered with scattered 
stiff hairs and glandular dots. The leaves are 1 to 
li inch long, evergreen and rigid, rounded at base, 
sharp at top, minutely scalloped, the youngest with 
short hairs on the margin ; flowers in crowded leafy 

1. Dog Laurel. (Leucothce Catesbsei, Gray.) — 
Found only in the mountains, where it is also called 
Hemlock, growing on the cool margins of streams. 
It is 2 to 4 feet high, the leaves evergreen, 3 to 5 
inches long and 1 inch broad, with a long tapering 
point, prickly-toothed on the edges. Clusters of flow- 
ers in the forks of the leaves. A very pretty shrub. 

2. (L. axillaris, Don.) — On the borders of streams 
and wet places in the Lower District, and very much 
like No. 1. But the leaves are less prickly-toothed, 
less tapering, 2 to 3 inches long, broader than in the 
preceding, the clusters of flowers longer, and the 
flowers longer. 

3. (L. racemosa, Gray.) — Grows from the coast to 
the base of the mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, on the 
borders of wet places. The leaves are rather thin, 
acute, finely toothed, 1 to li inch long. The flowers 


(£ inch long) are on terminal straight branchlets, all 
hanging to one side, and looking like rows of teeth, 
the rows being 2 or 3 inches long. 

4. (L. recurva, Gray.) — Discovered by Mr. Buckley 
in the mountains near Paint Rock. It is 3 to 4 feet 
high, the leaf and flower-branches recurved ; the 
leaves broader and more hairy than in No. 3, rounded 
at base, finely toothed, scarcely tapering, 2 to 3 inches 
long, deciduous as in No. 3. 

(Cassandra calyculata, Don.) — A small shrub, 2 to 
3 feet high, growing in damp grounds of the Lower 
District, and not unlikely in the others. The ever- 
green leaves are about 1 inch long, J inch wide, finely 
toothed, rather stiff, and covered, like the young 
branches, with small white scales. The flowers are 
on terminal branchlets, quite small, solitary in the 
forks of small leaves. 

1. Laurel. (Rhododendron maximum, Linn.) — 
This is rare north of Pennsylvania, but becomes 
abundant southward in the Alleghanies, and is com- 
mon through their whole range in this State, where 
it often forms impenetrable thickets, many acres in 
extent. It also grows upon rocky hills in the Mid- 
dle District as far east as Orange. Its usual height 
is 8 to 10 feet, but is sometimes as high as 20 feet. 
This is a production of great beauty and universally 
admired. The flowers, about an inch broad, grow in 
compact clusters on the ends of the branches, and are 
generally of a pale rose color, but sometimes whitish, 
dotted with green and yellow on the inside. These 


contrast pleasingly with the large thick evergreen 
leaves. The leaves and flowers are reputed poison- 
ous. The wood is very hard and fine grained, but 
not equal to that of Ivy. 

2. Oval-Leaved Laurel. (R. Catawbiense, 
Michx.) — This splendid Laurel is chiefly confined to 
the highest summits of our mountains, but is said to 
extend somewhat into Virginia. It is often con- 
founded with the preceding, but besides its different 
locality, growing only on the tops of such mountains 
as the Roan in Yancey and Negro Mountain in Ashe, 
it blossoms earlier than the other, though at a higher 
elevation, has larger and more intensely colored flow- 
ers, and shorter and broader leaves. It is 6 to 8 feet 
high, and handsomer than No. 1. It stands cultiva- 
tion pretty well in the Middle District. 

3. Dwarf Laurel. (R. punctatum, Andr.) — A 
rusty looking shrub, 1 to 2 feet high, chiefly confined 
to the mountains of North Carolina and Georgia. It 
has a strong family likeness to the other species, but 
is too inferior to them in every respect to attract or 
deserve much attention. I have met with it only on 
Table Rock, Jonas' Ridge and Whiteside Mountain. 

1. Smooth Honeysuckle. (Azalea arborescens, 
Pursh.) — Found only along water courses in the 
lower part of the Upper District, and is 4 to 10 feet 
high. It is similar to the next, a common and well 
known species ; but this has smooth branchlets, 
leaves of brighter green above, and long calyx ap- 
pendages at the base of the flower. The flowers are 



white and roseate, and their odor may be perceived 
at a great distance ; this being the most powerfully 
fragrant of our Honeysuckles. For cultivation this 
will rank next in beauty to the Yellow Honeysuckle. 

2. Clammy Honeysuckle. (A. viscosa, Linn.) 
— Very common through the State, 2 to 6 or 8 feet 
high, the branchlets bristly, and the flowers covered 
with clammy hairs. The flowers are white or flesh- 
colored and very fragrant. In this and No. 1 the 
flowers appear after the leaves have expanded. In 
the next two species they appear before or with the 

A variety of this (var : glauca) occurs with paler 
and rougher leaves, their underside covered with a 
white bloom. 

3. Purple Honeysuckle. (A. nudiflora, Linn.) 
— Very common in great varieties of soil through 
the State, 2 to 6 feet high, but usually very small in 
poor dry soils. The flowers vary from a flesh-color 
to pink or purple, and are sometimes quite white. 
They are destitute of fragrance. 

4. Yellow Honeysuckle. (A. calendulacea, 
Michx.) — This is found only at a considerable eleva- 
tion on our mountains, where it is abundant and 
well known by the name here given. It is com- 
monly from 3 to 6 feet high, and varies very much in 
the color of its flowers, but most frequently they are 
some shade of yellow. Bartram, in his " Travels," 
calls this the Fieri/ Azalea, and says : " This epithet 
Fiery I annex to this most celebrated species of 


Azalea, as being expressive of the appearance of its 
flowers, which are in general of the color of the finest 
red lead, orange and bright gold, as well as yellow 
and cream color. These various splendid colors are 
not only in separate plants, but frequently all the 
varieties and shades are seen in separate branches on 
the same plant, and the clusters of blossoms cover 
the shrubs in such incredible profusion on the hill- 
sides, that suddenly opening to view from dark 
shades, we are alarmed with the apprehension of the 
woods being set on fire. This is certainly the most 
gay and brilliant flowering shrub yet known." 

1. Ivy. (Kalmia latifolia, Linn.) — A beautiful 
shrub known from New England to Georgia, either 
by the above name, or as Laurel, Mountain Laurel 
and Calico Bush. In this State it is known under 
the first and last names, the first being most in use. 
It is most abundant in the mountains, but is found 
along streams and on rocky hills of the Middle Dis- 
trict, extending somewhat into the Lower, even into 
the Dismal Swamp. This, in combination with the 
Laurel, which often accompanies it and blossoms at 
the same time, presents a scene of floral beauty rarely 
equaled in this country. Like the Laurel, this is an 
evergreen, and forms also impenetrable thickets, but 
its leaves are shining, much darker and smaller. It 
is 10 to 15 and even 20 feet high. 

The leaves are poisonous to cattle, and a snuff 
made from them is a powerful sternutatory. An 
ointment made from the powdered leaves has been 



successfully used for scald heads. The wood, par- 
ticularly of the roots, is exceedingly hard, fine- 
grained, marked with red lines, and capable of a 
good polish. We have hardly any wood better 
adapted for the handles of tools, small screws, and 
similar' articles. This and the Laurels can be raised 
from seeds. 

2. Wicky. (K. angustifolia, Linn.) — This has an 
extensive range over the United States. In this 
State it is common on the small Pine-barren swamps 
of the Lower Districts, but is rare in the others. It 
is 1 to 3 feet high ; the leaves are 1 to 2 inches long 
and \ inch wide, pale green, paler underneath ; the 
flowers roseate or crimson, about i inch broad, being 
one-third the size of the preceding, but of the same 
elegant form, and growing in clusters along the 
branches. This is a beautiful undershrub and is 
greatly improved by cultivation. It is a poisonous 
plant, especially to sheep, and is in some places called 
Sheep Laurel. A decoction of the leaves is a domes- 
tic remedy for cutaneous diseases in man and beast. 

3. (K. cuneata, Michx.) — Similar to the Wicky, 
found in the Lower District, but very rare. It may 
be distinguished from that by the flowers being 
white at top and red at bottom, and by the leaves 
being scattered along the branches, instead of grow- 
ing in circles of three, as in No. 2. 

Sand Myrtle. (Leiophyllum buxifolium, Ell.) 
— A small evergreen shrub, 6 to 12 inches high, 
looking somewhat like the Garden Box, with small. 


dark green leaves, and small white flowers clustered 
on the ends of the branches. It grows in sandy 
woods of Brunswick County, and on the rocky sum- 
mits of our mountains, from the Grandfather to 

False Heath. (Menziesia globularis, Salisb.) — 
Common on the higher mountains, 3 to 6 feet high, 
with thin, hairy, deciduous leaves, and small, reddish, 
bell-shaped flowers, like those of a Huckleberry, and 
a small, woody seed-vessel, like those of Andro- 
meda, etc. 

1. White Alder. Sweet Pepper-Bush. (Cle- 
thra alnifolia, Linn.) — Grows near damp places in 
the Lower and Middle Districts, 2 to 4 feet high. 
The leaves are a little like those of the common 
Alder, but are smaller and narrower. The flowers 
are small, white, and very fragrant, terminating the 
branches in racemes which are 2 to 3 inches long. 
A form of this (var : tomentosa) has leaves with a 
white down on the underside. 

2. Mountain Pepper-Bush. (C. acuminata, 
Michx.) — Quite an ornamental shrub, 10 to 15 feet 
high, growing in the mountains from Ashe to Chero- 
kee. Its leaves are thin, pointed, fine-toothed, and 
5 to 6 inches long. The racemes of white flowers 
are larger than in No. 1, and drooping. 

(Itea Virginica, Linn.) — At a little distance this 
has some resemblance to the White Alder, but with a 
smoother aspect, and the flowers are not fragrant. 
It belongs to the borders of wet places from the 


coast to Lincoln, is 4 to 8 feet high, and has small 
white flowers in drooping racemes, which are 3 to 5 
inches long on the ends of the branches. 

1. Wild Hydrangea. (Hydrangea arborescens, 
Linn.) — A smooth shrub, 2 to 5 feet high, gro wing- 
along streams and on mountain and hill sides of the 
Upper and Middle Districts. The leaves are 3 to 5 
inches long, heart-shaped, pointed, toothed. The 
flowers are whitish, in flat-topped clusters, some of 
those on the margin being large and showy like those 
of the cultivated Hydrangea. 

2. Snowy Hydrangea. (H. radiata, Walt.) — 
Found only on the mountains west of the Blue 
Ridge from Yancey to Georgia. North of this it has 
not, I think, been detected. It is from 3 to 6 or 8 
feet high. The leaves are heart-shaped, 4 to 6 inches 
long, the underside clothed with a thick, silvery- 
white down. The barren flowers, which give this 
genus the peculiarity for which it is admired, are in 
this species found only around the border of the flat- 
topped cluster, but are said to become much more 
abundant in cultivation. They are of a pure white, 
an inch or more broad. This pretty shrub would be 
much prized in gardens, if there were not some more 
showy species in cultivation. 

1. Syringa. (Philadelphus grandiflorus, Willd.) 
— This very ornamental shrub, now common in our 
yards and gardens, prized for its graceful, slender 
branches and snow-white flowers, does not appear to 
be abundant in this State. I am acquainted with 


but a single locality of it, which is in Hickory Nut 
Gap ; though it is doubtless to be found along other 
streams in the upper part of the State. It is 6 to 10 
feet high, the leaves about 2 inches long, pointed, 
with few distant teeth, rather soft and hairy, and 
tasting somewhat like Cucumbers. The flowers are 
an inch or more broad. 

2. Rough Syringa. (P. hirsutus, Nutt.) — Every 
way smaller than No. 1, the leaves quite rough on 
the upper side and whitish-downy beneath. This 
grows on the French Broad River, a few miles below 

1. Mock Orange. (Styrax grandifolia, Ait.) — A 
very beautiful shrub, 3 to 12 feet high, with rather 
large leaves, 3 to 6 inches long, and of a grayish 
aspect from the presence of a whitish down on their 
underside. ^The flowers are from 15 to 20 on loose 
nodding racemes, white, very fragrant, in size and 
form very similar to those of the Orange. It grows 
on light rich soils in the Lower and Middle Districts, 
as far west as Lincoln. This is well worthy of a 
place in shrubberies, but has received but little 

2. (S. Americana, Lam.) — Distinguished from No. 
1 by its smooth, green leaves, 1 or 2 inches long, and 
smaller flowers, only 3 or 4 on a raceme. It is 4 to 
8 feet high, not inelegant, but of inferior beauty to 
the other, and grows on the borders of swamps in 
the Lower District. 

1. Bush Honeysuckle. (Dier villa trifida, 


Maench.)— A small, rather delicate shrub, 3 to 5 feet 
high, with pointed toothed leaves which are 3 or 4 
inches long, and have short foot-stalks. The flowers 
are in clusters of (generally) 3 in the forks of the 
upper leaves, greenish yellow, and funnel-shaped, 
like those of the Woodbine. This is found only in 
the mountains. 

2. (D. sessilifolia, Buckley.) — Like the preceding, 
but larger in several particulars, and the leaves clasp 
the branches, being destitute of afoot-stalk. Found 
in the mountains. 

1. Strawberry Bush. (Euonymus Americanus, 
Linn.) — A shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in all the 
Districts, and known by the names of Burning Bush, 
Fish-ivood, and Bursting Heart, besides the one first 
given. The branches are square, straight but flex- 
ible, very smooth, and about as green as the leaves. 
The flowers are small, purplish or greenish, and un- 
attractive. The fruit gives the plant a peculiar 
beauty, for which chiefly it is prized in shrubberies. 
This is of a bright crimson color when mature, and 
covered with small warts which give it somewhat the 
aspect of a small strawberry. This finally bursts 
open, exposing its bright scarlet seeds. 

2. Burning Bush. (E. atropurpureus, Jacq.) — 
Every way larger than the preceding, its flowers 
dark purple, and the fruit smooth. I have not met 
with it, and am indebted to Prof. Mitchell for my 
knowledge of it as an inhabitant of this State. 

(Stillingia ligustrina, Michx.) — A shrub with slen- 


der spreading branches, G to 12 feet high, very rare 
in this State, and not found, I think, north of Cape 
Fear River. The leaves are 1 to 3 inches long, not 
toothed, the upper end obtuse, tapering at the lower 
end, and with a short foot-stalk. For my knowledge 
of this plant I am under obligations to Dr. McRee. 
The Tallow Tree (S. sebifera), cultivated farther 
south, and the Queen's Delight (S. sylvatica), an her- 
baceous plant of the Pine barrens, are members of 
this genus. 

1. (Stuartia Virginica, Cav.) — This and the Lob- 
lolly Bay are the only representatives in this country 
of the admired Camellia family, and the still more 
important Tea Plant It is one of our most beauti- 
ful shrubs, and yet has nowhere, so far as I know, 
obtained a popular name. It is found in rich soils 
in the eastern half of our Lower District, extending 
north into Lower Virginia, and southward to Flor- 
ida. It is 6 to 15 feet high, blossoming in April and 
May. The flowers are white, about the size of the 
Cherokee Rose, silky on the outer side, covered on 
the inner with a circle of stamens with bright purple 
filaments and blue anthers. 

2. (S. pentagyna, L'Her.) — Like the preceding, 
without a name. It is similar to the preceding, only 
its flowers are cream-colored and its staminate fila- 
ments are white. Found in the Middle and Upper 
Districts, from Wake to Cherokee. The seed-vessel 
in these two is an ovoid woody capsule. 

Toothache Tree. (Zanthoxylum Carolinianum, 


Lam.) — Known also by the names of Pellitory and 
Prickly Ash. The last name, though more legitimate 
in this application, is generally appropriated in this 
State to another plant before described. It is a 
small branching tree, 12 to 20 feet high, the old bark 
covered with prickles, and peculiar to the southern 
sea-coast. The bark, leaves, and fruit are aromatic 
and intensely pungent, producing a rapid secretion 
of saliva, and are a popular and useful application 
for toothache. They would probably be generally 
serviceable as a counter irritant. 

1. Hardhack. (Spiraea tomentosa, Linn.) — An 
erect branching pretty shrub, 2 or 3 feet high, com- 
mon in low wet places of the Lower and Middle 
Districts, and the lower part of the Upper. The 
leaves are 1 to li inch long, oblong, coarse-toothed, 
the under side coated with a rusty- white down. The 
flowers are rose-colored, small, clustered on the ends 
of the branches in a compound raceme 3 or 4 inches 

2. Queen of the Meadow. (S. salicifolia, Linn.) 
— This is similar to No. 1, and sometimes called 
Meadow Sweet, but is taller and the flowers generally 
white. The leaves are larger, smoother and thinner. 
It belongs to damp bushy places in the Middle Dis- 
trict, and in valleys and along streams in the lower 
part of the Upper. 

3. Nine Bark. (S. opulifolia, Linn.) — This is 
found upon river banks in the western part of the 
State, 6 to 10 feet high, with slender curved branches, 


often spreading like a vine over other shrubs, and 
covered with a profusion of flat clusters of small, 
white, but not showy flowers. Leaves about 2 inches 
long and broad, divided into 3 segments, and coarsely 
toothed. The reddish fruit is membranaceous, com- 
posed of 3 to 5 sacs united at base. The old bark 
peels off in thin layers. 

Yellow Root. (Zanthorhiza apiifolia, L'Her.) — 
A small shrubby plant, 1 or 2 feet high, generally 
spreading on the ground, found on moist rocky hill- 
sides of the Middle and Upper Districts. The leaves 
are dark green and divided somewhat like those of 
Parsley. The flowers are small, dark purple, in 
loose slender clusters, appearing before the leaves. 
The roots are intensely bitter, of a yellow color, and 
were used by the Indians in making a yellow dye. 

Red Root. (Ceanothus Americanus, Linn.) — 
Common in dry woods from the coast to the moun- 
tains, 1 to 3 feet high, and the ends of the numerous 
small branches having loose clusters (1 or 2 inches 
long) of small white flowers supported on white foot- 
stalks. The leaves are 1 or 2 inches long, sharply 
toothed, and have 3 prominent veins. The root is 
dark red and quite astringent, and is frequently used 
in infusion, tincture, or powder, where astringency 
is required. It is said also to furnish a dye of a cin- 
namon color. The dried leaves served as a substi- 
tute for Tea during the Revolution, and hence got 
the name of New Jersey Tea. It is said to be quite 
as good as some of the Black Teas. 


1. Indigo Bush. (Amorpha fmticosa, Linn.) — 

A very pretty shrub, 6 to 15 feet high, growing upon 
streams in all the Districts, but more frequent in the 
Lower. The flowers are small, dark purple, crowded 
on spikes which are 3 or 4 inches long and clustered 
together. It is said to have been used for the manu- 
facture of Indigo, but, I imagine, with not much 

2. Dwarf Indigo Bush. (A. herbacea, Walt.) — 
Like No. 1 in its whole habit, but only 2 or 3 feet 
high, of a grayish aspect, and with the flowers whit- 
ish or pale-blue. It is frequent in the barrens of the 
Lower District. The leaves in these two species are 
pinnate, like those of the Locust and Hickory. The 
fruit is a very small pod, sprinkled with glands. 

He Huckleberry. (Cyrilla racemiflora, Walt.) 
— This is an .absurd name, but I have never heard any 
other. This smooth shrub inhabits the borders of 
swamps and branches in the Lower District, and is 
10 to 15 feet high. The leaves are oblong, shining, 
2 to 3 inches long. The small white flowers grow on 
racemes that are 3 to 5 inches long, and that are clus- 
tered on the ends of the previous year's growth, and 
make this quite ornamental. The bark at the base 
of the trunk pulverizes naturally, and is much used 
as a styptic and in applications to old ulcers. 

(Buckley a distichophylla, Torr.) — A smooth shrub, 
about 6 feet high, with. slender grayish branches, 
known only upon the streams of this State that flow 
westward, as the Pigeon and French Broad Rivers. 


Its thin delicate foliage reminds one by its general 
aspect of the English and Catalonian Jasmine of our 
gardens. The flowers are greenish and inconspicuous. 
The fruit is about i inch long, growing solitary on 
the end of a branch. 

(Darbya umbellulata, Gray.)— Like the preceding, 
a very rare plant, as yet known only in two or three 
localities in Georgia, and in the bend of the Catawba, 
near Lincolnton, in this State. It is 1 to 2 feet high, 
with opposite branches and leaves, the latter ovale,' 
acute, entire, 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to li wide, rounded 
at base, and with short foot-stalks. The flowers are 
small, greenish, in a cluster of 3 to 8, which is borne 
on a foot-stalk in the forks of the leaves. 

Witch Hazel. (Hamamelis Virginica, Linn.)— 
Well known by this name through the State. It has 
the peculiarity of flowering late in the Fall after the 
leaves have dropped, and maturing its fruit in the 
following Spring. Its popular name is derived from 
the use made of its branches in discovering hidden 
springs of water, minerals, etc. Other kinds, as of 
the Peach, are indeed sometimes used fortius purpose, 
but I venture to affirm that none in the whole veget- 
able kingdom are better than those of Witch Hazel. 

Dwarf Alder. (Fothergilla alnifolia, Linn.)— 
Unknown north of Virginia. In this State it is 
found from the coast to Lincoln. In the Lower Dis- 
trict it is 1 to 2 feet high, often but a single un- 
branched stem, terminated by a tuft of small white 
flowers before the leaves appear. It grows here upon 


the borders of Pine-barren swamps, and is rarely 
much branched. In the Middle District it is found 
upon rocky hills, is 3 to 5 feet high, forming a 
branched straggling shrub. The foliage varies a 
good deal, so that several species have been made of 
it by some authors; but the leaves are generally not 
unlike those of Alder. The fruit is a hard capsule, 
like that of Witch Hazel, and, like that, bursting 
elastically and expelling the hard bony seeds to a 
considerable distance. 

Sweet Fern. (Comptonia asplenifolia, Ait.) — 
A small shrubby plant, 1 or 2 feet high, with leaves 
(3 or 4 inches long) much resembling some of the 
Ferns, and possessing a grateful aromatic odor like 
that of the Wax Myrtle. It is found chiefly on rocky 
or gravelly hills of the Upper and Middle Districts, 
but is occasionally found in dry and sandy woods in 
the upper part of the Lower. An infusion of this 
plant is a popular remedy for dysentery. 

Wax Myrtle. Candle-berry Myrtle. (Myrica 
cerifera, Linn.) — A well-known shrub with fragrant 
leaves, common in the Lower District, and found in 
fruit from 1 to 18 feet in height. The small berry- 
like nuts, which often hang two or three years on 
the branches, are covered with a fragrant wax which 
has been used in the manufacture of soap and can- 
dles. The latter burn long and diffuse an agreeable 
odor. A decoction of the berries has been used for 
tetters and similar affections. The root is said to 
be a specific for tooth-ache. 


1. Hazel Nut. (Corylus Americana, Walt.) — 
A shrub 4 to 8 feet high, found in our mountains, 
and extending north to New England. The nut is 
much esteemed, but is smaller and harder shelled 
than the European Hazel or Filbert (C. Avellana). 

2. Beaked Hazel Nut. (C. rostrata, Ait.) — 
Of similar size and range with the preceding; but 
this has the husk of the fruit prolonged into a beak 
or horn, and it extends into the Middle District as 
far down as Orange. 

The remaining shrubs are so various in their fruit 
and general habit, that, to save space, they are here 
grouped miscellaneously together, most of them being 
well known by their popular names. 

Button Bush. Box. (Cephalanthus occiden- 
talis, Linn.) — Common on the borders of streams 
and swampy grounds in the Lower and Middle Dis- 
tricts, always easily recognized by its round head of 
small white flowers, which is about an inch in diame- 
ter. It is 3 to 4 feet high, and very pretty when in 
blossom. The inner bark of the roots is an agreeable 
bitter, and is used for relieving obstinate coughs. 

1. Shrubby Trefoil. Hop Tree. (Ptelea tri- 
foliata, Linn.) — A shrub 4 to 8 feet high, belonging 
to the upper part of the Middle District, with tri- 
foliate leaves like those of Clover, the leaflets 2 to 3 
inches long, somewhat hairy when young, pale on the 
underside. The flowers are small, greenish-white, in 
rather flat clusters, heavy-scented, which are suc- 
ceeded by a flat, winged fruit, like that of the Elm, 


but an inch broad. The fruit is bitter, and used as a 
substitute for Hops. 

2. Downy Hop Tree. (P. mollis, M. A. C.)— 
Every way smaller than No. 1, and found only in the 
Lower District. Its leaves are more rigid, and the 
underside covered with a permanent, white, soft, silky 

Bladder Nut. (Staphylea trifolia, Linn.) — An 
interesting shrub, 5 to 10 feet high, with greenish, 
striped branches, trifoliate leaves, the leaflets 2 to 4 
inches long, taper-pointed, finely toothed, and smooth. 
The small white flowers are gathered into lt>ose pen- 
dulous clusters, which are succeeded by 3-angled 
bladder-like pods about two inches long. I have met 
with this only near Hillsborough and Chapel Hill, 
but it is probably to be found along streams through 
the Middle District. 

1. Sweet Shrub. (Calycanthus floridus, Linn.) 
— This plant, now so extensively cultivated, and 
admired for the rich Strawberry odor of its flowers, 
is a native of the southern Alleghanies. This spe- 
cies may be known by the soft down on the under- 
side of the leaves, and on the branchlets, etc. The 
fruit of this genus is a sort of thick-skinned, bladdery 
sac, 1J inch long, containing large seeds. 

2. (C. lsetfigatus, Willd.) — The leaves of this are 
taper-pointed, smooth and green on both sides, some- 
times a little rough above and pale beneath. This 
is found in the mountains, and in the Middle Dis- 
trict as low down as Orange. 


3. (C. glaucus, Willd.) — This is found from Lin- 
coln westward, and may be recognized by the white 
under-surface of the leaf; a little rough on the 

1. Alder. (Alnus serrulata, Ait. — Common on 
small streams all over the State, and too well known 
b}^ the above name to need a description. 

2. Mountain Alder. (A. viridis, DC.) — Like 
the above in habit and general characters, but the 
underside of the leaves covered with a soft gray 
down. It is known at the South, only upon the top 
of Roan Mountain, from whence to northern New 
York it is not found. It occurs in Europe. 

1. Groundsel. (Baccharis halimifolia, Linn.) — 
Grows in both brackish and fresh swampy grounds 
of the Lower District. It is 6 to 12 feet high, of an 
ashy hue from the whitish scales that cover the bark 
and leaves. The small flower-heads are solitary, or 
a few clustered together, borne on a foot-stalk. The 
long, white, silky hairs of the seeds emerging from 
the heads give the plant a pleasing appearance in the 

2. (B. glomeruliflora, Pers.) — Like the preceding, 
but rarer and less snowy, and has larger clusters of 
flower-heads, destitute of the foot-stalk. 

3. (B. angustifolia, Michx.) — Found in brackish 
marshes, 4 to 8 feet high. The leaves, which in the 
other species are half as broad as long, and toothed, 
are in this linear and entire. 

1. Marsh Elder. (Iva frutescens, Linn.) — A 


coarse unsightly shrub of our salt marshes, 4 to 6 
feet high. The whole plant is smoothish, and its 
leaves lance-shaped, toothed, and about 2 inches long. 
The flower-heads are greenish and unsightly in the 
forks of the small leaves on the terminal branchlets. 

2. (I. imbricata, Walt.) — This grows upon the 
sea-beach, and is but partly shrubby, 3 or 4 feet high. 
The leaves are very thick and fleshy, 1 to 1£ inch 
long, rarely toothed, and wedge-shaped. The plant 
has a strong odor like old honey. 

Swamp Loosestrife. (Nesaea verticillata, H. B. 
K.) — A half shrubby plant found in branch swamps 
of the Lower District, 4 to 6 feet high, with slender, 
curved, 4 to 6-sided steins. The leaves are 3 or 4 
inches long, narrow like those of a Willow, generally 
growing around the stem in a circle of three. The 
flowers are clustered in the forks of the leaves, about 
i inch wide, purple or roseate, very pretty, remind- 
ing one of the blossoms of the Lagerstraemia or 
Crape Tree. 

Arbor Vit.e. (Thuja occidentalis, Linn.) — This 
has its southern limit on the mountains in the north- 
western part of the State. From thence through the 
mountains of Virginia it becomes more common. It 
is but a shrub or small tree at the South, but farther 
north it attains a height of 50 feet, and its timber is 
used in building and for cabinet work. 

1. Cane. (Arundinaria gigantea, Chapm.) — This 
belongs to the Gr?-ass family, but, being of woody 
texture, falls within our arrangement. It is 10 to 15 


or 20 feet high, found along the river bottoms of the 
Cape Fear. I am not aware of its existence north 
of that limit. According to Dr. Chapman, " it is 
simple the first year, branching the second, after- 
wards at indefinite periods fruiting, and soon after 
decaying." The value of the stems for fishing-rods 
is well known. 

2. Reed. (A. tecta, Muhl.) — This is the common 
smaller form, 2 to 10 feet high, and found in low 
grounds in each District. 

This completes the list of the Shrubs of North 
Carolina, so far as they are known to me, with the 
exception of the following, which are too small and 
obscure to merit more than a bare enumeration. 

Hypericum. Of this we have five woody species, 
all with yellow flowers, one of which (H. prolificum) is 
occasionally cultivated under the name of Rock Rose. 

Ascyrum. Much like the preceding, also with 
yellow flowers. 

Flowering Moss. (Pyxidanthera barbulata, 
Michx.) — A very pretty, small, trailing evergreen, 
with white flowers which appear in early Spring, and 
looking somewhat like a Moss in the absence of blos- 
soms. Belongs to the damp Pine-barrens and Sa- 
vannas of the Lower District. 

Hudsonia. Only 3 or 4 inches high, also with 
yellow flowers, of which no locality is anywhere 
known but on Table Rock, N. C. 

Trailing Arbutus, or Ground Laurel. (Epi- 
ga3a repens,. Linn.) Common. 


Polygonella. In the sandy Barrens about 

It may be interesting to append here a comparative 
view of the Flora of North Carolina with that of the 
Northern and Southern States east of the Mississippi. 
In Prof. Gray's " Manual of Botany," which includes 
the States north of North Carolina and Tennessee, 
I find described 130 Trees, 183 Shrubs, and 30 Vines. 
In Dr. Chapman's " Flora of the Southern States " 
are described 126 Trees, (of which there are 112 in 
North Carolina,) 224 Shrubs, (176 of them in North 
Carolina,) and 46 Vines (32 in this State). 


Vines ot North Carolina 

These will be grouped according to the character 
of their fruit : the first nine genera having Berries ; 
the next five, Pods ; the next three, dry Capsules ; 
and the remaining two, naked Feathered Seeds. 

GRAPES. — 1. Summer Grape. [Vitis aestivalis, 
Michx.] — Common, as are the other species, except- 
ing the Muscadine, in most parts of the United 
States. In this State it is found in all the Districts, 
generally near streams, but sometimes in dry woods, 
climbing over trees from 30 to 50 feet. The leaves 
are 4 to 6 inches broad, cut into 3 or 5 divisions, the 
underside clothed with a reddish, cobweb-like down 
when young, which mostly falls away in the course 
of the season. The bunches of fruit are compound, 
6 to 8 inches long, the berries I to i inch thick, 
purplish, blackish or bluish, with a bloom ; very 
varying in flavor, frequently very fine. 

According to H. W. Ravenel, Esq., of Aiken, South 
Carolina, who is a good Botanist, as well as a suc- 
cessful cultivator of Grapes, the following cultivated 
varieties are descended from this species: The War- 

th: gabgld 

. Pauline, Herbemant, Guignard. 
''■'•'■> T- .. L i Grape or Old Saute, E 

L . V," ::";-. :'._> [,'-_ ;_.-. 

identities the Black July, Devereu . I~ i rmand, Sum- 
t ■. and Lincoln Grapes. I lind, ho t :here 

difference of opinion in regard to the identitv of 
the Lenoir and Lincoln ; me maintaining 

a perceptible difference, the latter being deemed 
superior to the other. Dr. C. L. Hurler. :: Li; 
who is paying much al 

especially of our native . -' 

L ae : : Grapes," and 

recommends its general cultivation. He inform- 
that this, as well as the Warren, came from Georgia. 

I learn Trom the same gentleman th Lincoln 

Grape was discovered about the beginning of tl s 
century, near the junction of the v nth Pork and 

by Dr. W and that he t: 

planted the whole vine near his house. From 
stock Mr. John Ha:", f Id _ | hif 

which is still in vigorous e. From this! st, 

Dr. B : Lincoln! rained his i 

sent some of the fruit to Lengworth. wh 
name, now most in use, of the Lincoln Grape, thongh 
it was previously known as the Hart Grape, and 
M L Gi ipe. 

-. F x Grape. V. Labrosca, Linn.)— I h 
with this only in the Middle I 
found in damp thickets, running from 15 to 25 or 30 
feet. The leaves are roundish. ab< 


as those of No. 1, but not so much divided, and cov- 
ered underneath with a permanent thick down, which 
is generally white or gray, rarely of a faint rusty hue. 
The berries are larger than in that, being \ to f inch 
in diameter, in small bunches, commonly dark purple, 
but sometimes amber-colored or whitish, and of va- 
rious quality, mostly with a musky and rather hard 

The cultivated varieties of this are, according to 
Mr. Ravenel, the Isabella, Catawba, Bland's Madeira, 
Concord, Diana, Rebecca, To Kalon, Anna, Mary Isa- 
bel, Ontario, Northern Muscadine, Hartford Prolific, 
Catawissa, Garrigues, Stetson s Seedling, York Madeira, 
Hyde's Eliza, Union Village, Early Chocolate, Harvard, 
Early Black, Green Prolific Kilvington. * The first 
two in the list are, I believe, the most approved, and 
most extensively cultivated ; both of which are said 
to have originated in this State. 

A foreign origin has been claimed for the Isabella, 
but this is an evident error, proved in the fact that 
seedlings of the Isabella sometimes revert to our Fox 
Grape in every particular of leaf and fruit. This has 
been tested by Mr. Caradeuc, of South Carolina, as 
I learn from Mr. Ravenel. But what is regarded as 
a scientific demonstration of its American origin, is 
the fact that its seedlings sometimes have barren 
stocks, like all our American species, which is not 
the case with any European Grapes. Besides, the 
Isabella, in its specific characters, comes nearer to 
our Fox Grape than to any other. 


Dr. Hunter, who has given much attention to the 
history of our Grapes, has communicated most of the 
following items in regard to the Isabella. Dr. Las- 
peyre was probably its first cultivator in the United 
States, probably as early as 1805, as he sold it in the 
Wilmington Market in 1810. Judge Ruffin culti- 
vated it in Orange County in 1811, under the name 
of Laspeyre Grape. It is a tradition that Gov. Smith 
brought it to Sniithville in 1809. About the year 
1810 Mrs. Isabella Gibbs took a rooted cutting from 
Gov. Smith's garden to Brooklyn, New York, accord- 
ing to a current account. According to Dr. Las- 
peyre, she got the vine from him. These statements 
may, in a sort, be reconciled, if Gov. Smith obtained 
his stock from Dr. Laspeyre. In 1819, Gen. Swift 
bought the Gibbs place, and it was there the elder 
Prince first saw and obtained this Grape, which he 
named the Isabella in compliment to Mrs. Gibbs. 
Dr. Hunter has some of these statements from Gen. 
Swift. Dr. Laspeyre was under the impression that 
this, which he called the Black Cape, was one of the 
vines which he brought from St. Domingo, but it 
was probably the accidental introduction of an Amer- 
ican among his foreign stocks. Dr. Hunter seems to 
be of opinion that it came to the Cape Fear region 
from South Carolina, according with the tradition 
mentioned in Dr. Hawks's History. 

The Catawba Grape, as I am informed by Dr. 
Hunter, originated in Buncombe County on Cain 
Creek, an affluent of the French Broad. His views 


on " The Origin of the Catawba Grape " were given 
last year (1859) in an article . for the American 

3. Muscadine. (V. vulpina, Linn.) Known also 
as Bullace, Bull Grape, and Bullet Grape, and far- 
ther south as Fox Grape; in Florida, as Mustang 
Grape. It extends northward as far as Maryland 
and Kentucky, from whence southward it is one of 
the most common vines. In this State it is found, in 
various soils, from the coast to Cherokee, but most 
luxuriant in light soils of the Lower District, cover- 
ing the loftiest trees. The bark is pale and smooth, 
that of the smaller branches dotted with minute 
warts. The leaves are about 3 inches long, thin, 
smooth and shining, coarse-toothed, and nearly round 
and heart-shaped. The berries are in small bunches, 
larger and thicker skinned than any of our other 
Grapes, varying in color from whitish through differ- 
ent shades of red and purple to ebony black. The 
quality of the fruit varies as much as its color, being 
now of a sharp acid flavor, and again of luscious 

The Scuppernong, now so famous as a Table and 
Wine Grape, is a variety of this species. There are 
still found in the Lower and Middle Districts, espe- 
cially in the former, wild vines bearing a whitish or 
amber berry, like the original Scuppernong, but of 
various qualities, as in the case with the colored 
kinds. Some of them are no better than the com- 
monest Muscadines ; and no one is superior, if equal, 


to the well known cultivated variety. Some of the 
dark Muscadines are very nearly as luscious as the 
Scuppernong, and have been brought under culture, 
as the Jlish Grape^aud Alexander's Grape, which are 
black, and also the Bull's Eye, so named from its 
superior size. 

The Hickman Grape I take to be identical with 
the true Scuppernong and derived from Tyrrell 
County, the home of the original. For some of this 
information, as well as for the following history of 
the Scuppernong (proper), I am indebted to Rev. E. 
M. Forbes, who has resided in the region and has 
taken much pains to obtain an authentic account 
of this vine. Two men, of the name of Alexander, 
while clearing land near Columbia, the county seat 
of Tyrrell, which stands on the east side of Scupper- 
nong River, discovered this Grape, and were so much 
pleased with it that they preserved the vine and 
the tree upon which it grew. " That was the vine 
which I saw," says Air. Forbes, "and from which 
other vines were propagated. "' They called it the 
M White Grape," and from it made what they called 
"Country Wine." At the suggestion of a relative, 
who had been in the Mediterranean, and knew the 
indefiniteness of such names as these, they subse- 
quently named the Grape from the river upon which 
it was found. " This is the history given by a grand- 
daughter of one of the discoverers, who was alive 
when I first went to Scuppernong." 

A tradition is furnished me by Dr. Hunter, that, 


" about the year 1774, the Rev. Charles Pettigrew 
found it on the low grounds of Scuppernong River, 
and planted out several vines." My limited space 
will not permit an exhaustive discussion of this mat- 
ter here, and I will, therefore, only remark further 
upon it, that the notion of its origination on Roanoke 
Island seems opposed by the name of the Grape. I 
have also been told by those who have been on the 
Island, that there are no vines of it there which were 
not evidently transplanted there. 

4. Frost Grape. Winter Grape. (V. cordi- 
folia, Michx.) — Common in thickets along streams 
through the Middle District. The leaves are 3 to 5 
inches broad, thin, smooth, toothed, and sometimes 
cut into three segments. The berries are nearly 
black, small, I inch thick, and very sour until dead 
ripe. The berries are sometimes greenish-white, and 
Lawson mentions a white [whitish?] variety. I 
have not heard of this being cultivated. 

5. (V. bipinnata, Torr. & Gr.) — This would not 
generally be taken for a member of this genus, either 
from its leaves, which are compound, like those of 
the China Tree, or from its fruit, which is uneatable. 
The berries are blackish, slightly hairy, and about 
the size of a small pea. It is found in the Lower 
and Middle Districts, growing in rich soils, climbing 
(without tendrils) over shrubs and small trees. 

Virginian Creeper. (Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 
Michx.) — This pretty vine, sometimes cultivated, is 
found along fence-rows and borders of woods in all 


parts of the State. It may be known by its leaflets 
growing in fives from the end of a common leaf-stalk, 
as in the Buckeye, which is the case with no other 
of our Climbers. The foliage becomes crimson in 
th^ Fall. The berries are dark-blue, about the size 
of a small pea, borne on bright crimson foot-stalks. 
The rapidity of its growth renders this Creeper use- 
ful for covering old walls, etc., like the English Ivy. 
It is, indeed, sometimes called American Ivy. This 
is often confounded with the Poison Vine, though 
having very little likeness to it, and is hence avoided, 
though it be quite innocent. 

1. Woodbine. (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.) — 
This beautiful vine, now common in cultivation, 
grows from the coast to the mountains. The flowers 
are tubular, 1 to 2 inches long, scarlet without and 
yellow within. In rich soils it has a very luxuriant 
growth, climbing high into forest trees. 

2. Yellow Woodbine. (L. grata, Ait.) — This 
belongs to the mountains, and has a flower 1 to 1£ 
inch long, reddish on the tubular part, whitish at top, 
then changing to 3-ellow, somewhat fragrant. The 
young branches are often hairy. 

3. Small Woodbine. (L. parviflora, Linn.) — 
Found in the mountains, less climbing than the 
others, with flowers about § inch long, somewhat 
swollen at the base of the tube, and greenish-yellow 
tinged with purple. 

I have heard of a yellow species in Gates County, 
but have never seen any specimens. 



1. Common Bamboo or Green Brier. (Smilax 
rotundifolia, Linn.)— Very common in all the Dis- 
tricts, generally in thickets where the soil is rather 
fertile, 20 to 40 feet long, the stems and branches of a 
yellowish-green color, round, and armed with strong 
prickles, the branchlets slightly angled. The leaves 
are deciduous, 3 or 4 inches long, roundish and heart- 
shaped. The berries, as in most of the species, are 
bluish-black, borne in bunches upon a common stalk 
in the fork of the leaves, and which is about the 
same length with the leaf-stalk. 

2. (S. tamnoides, Linn.)— A stout prickly vine 
with angled branchlets, occurring in the Lower and 
Middle Districts. The leaves are somewhat fiddle- 
shaped or contracted in the middle, the base some- 
times spreading into rounded projections. The gen- 
eral fruit-stalk is a little flattened, about 1J inch 
long, and twice the length of the leaf-stalk. 

3. China Root. (S. Pseudo-China, Linn.)— Stout 
and prickly like No. 2, 10 to 15 feet long, the 
branches roundish and not prickly, and the roots 
tuberous. The leaves are large, 4 to 7 inches long, 
ovate, green both sides, the edges and nerves on the 
underside roughened with minute prickles. The gen- 
eral fruit-stalk is flat and 2 or 3 inches long. The 
berries are blackish and larger than in the preceding 

4. Sarsaparilla. (S. glauca, Walt.)— Not un- 
common in all the Districts in cultivated grounds 
near streams. The stems are prickly and 2 to 4 feet 


long. The leaves are ovate, and covered, especially 
on the underside, with a white bloom that rubs off 
under the finger. The berries are black. The com- 
mon fruit-stalk is 2 or 3 times longer than the leaf- 
stalk. The root of this is sometimes used in the 
composition of diet drinks. It is not the Sarsaparilla 
of the druggists, but is said to be often mixed 

with it. 

5. (S. Waited, Pursh.)— Stem dark green, angled, 
10 to 15 feet long, having prickles only towards the 
bottom, running over bushes and up small trees in 
branch swamps of the Lower District. Leaves de- 
ciduous, ovate, heart-shaped, smooth, dark shining 
green above, paler beneath, terminating in a small, 
almost prickly point, 3 to 4 inches long, 2 to 3 wide, 
and having 3 distinct and 2 obscure nerves. The 
berries are scarlet and very conspicuous in Winter. 
This has a creeping root. 

6. (S. lanceolata, Linn.)— This and No. 5 are the 
only species with red berries. But this has ever- 
green leaves, narrower than in the preceding and 
acute at base. The branches, too, are not angled, 
and the root is tuberous. I have not myself met with 
it, and give it on the authority of others. 

7. (S. laurifolia, Linn)— This is a showy species, 
and like Nos. 6 and 8, has evergreen leaves. It runs 
to a great length over bushes and up lofty trees, the 
lower part only being prickly. The leaves are thick 
and shining, lance-shaped or oblong. The general 
fruit-stalk is equal to the leaf-stalk, J to I inch long. 


Berries black. This seems confined to wet places in 
the Lower District. 

8. (S. auriculata, Walt.) — Similar to No. 7, slightly 
or not at all prickly, growing over small shrubs on 
the coast, flowers fragrant. The leaves are pererir 
nial, 1 to 2 inches long, narrowly ovate, 3 to 5 nerved, 
with conspicuous cross veins, especially beneath, ter- 
minated by an abrupt almost prickly point. Com- 
mon fruit-stalk rather shorter than the leaf-stem. 
Berries black. 

Rattan. Supple Jacjc (Berchemia volubilis, 
DC.) — A very tough flexible vine running up trees. 
The leaves are alternate, 1 to 2 inches long, ovate, 
dark green, very smooth, not toothed, having promi- 
nent parallel unbranched straight veins running ob- 
liquely from the midrib to the margin. The berry is 
dark purple, about ? inch long, with a thin coat and 
a hard smooth nut. Grows from Virginia southward 
through our Lower District. 

(Sageretia Michauxii, Brogn.) — Grows upon the 
sandy soil of the coast, 6 to 18 feet long, with thorn- 
like spreading branches. Leaves 1 inch long, ovate, 
opposite, smooth and shining, finely toothed. Flow- 
ers very small, in loose clusters. The berry is small 
and round, dark purple, and pleasantly acid. I have 
not met with this, and have introduced it here on the 
authority of Michaux. 

(Cocculus Carolinus, DC.) — This runs exten- 
sively over shrubs and small trees on the borders of 
damp woods and streams, from the coast to Lincoln. 


The leaves are 2 to 4 inches long, broadly ovate and 
heart-shaped, sometimes 3 lobed, smooth above, with 
a soft gray down underneath. The ripe berries are 
red, about the size of a small pea, growing in small 
clusters, containing a hard flat nut which is curved 
nearly into a ring. 

Moon Seed. (Menispermum Canadense, Linn.) 
—This is 6 to 12 feet long, and woody only in the 
lower part. It is the only one of our woody Climb- 
ers that has the leaf-stalk inserted into the plate of 
the leaf instead of the lower edge. The berries are 
black and contain a flat nut, as in the preceding 
species, curved into the form of a horse shoe. Rare 
in the Lower District, not uncommon elsewhere. 

Poison Vine. (^Rhus radicans, Linn.)— Now con- 
sidered by Botanists as only a variety of Poison Oak, 
but necessarily separated in the arrangement I have 
adopted. It is the only trifoliate woody Climber we 
have. Like Poison Oak and Poison Sumach, very 
poisonous to some people. Common throughout the 

The next Group of Climbers, comprising five 
genera, have their fruit in dry pods. All of the spe- 
cies are ornamental. 

Trumpet Flower. (Tecoma radicans, Juss.) — 
This splendid Climber, ascending the loftiest tree, is 
found from the coast to the lower part of the moun- 
tains, preferring damp rich soils. Its dark green 
compound leaves, and scarlet tubular flowers which 


are 2 to 3 inches long, make it an attractive orna- 
ment in yards and gardens. This harmless plant has 
the reputation, with some, of being poisonous. 

Cross Vine (Bignonia capreolata, Linn.) — This, 
like the preceding, is sometimes called Trumpet 
Flower. The flowers are of similar form, about 2 
inches long, but are of a duller red on the outside 
and yellow within. The leaves are of a dull green, 
growing in pairs from the end of a common foot- 
stalk, each leaflet also having its own stalk. This 
does not climb to so great a height as the other. A 
cross section of the stem exhibits a portion of its 
inner structure in the form of a Maltese cross, which 
gives the name to this plant. Not uncommon in 
the Lower and Middle Districts. 

Virgin's Bower. (Wistaria frutescens, DC.) 
— This luxuriant, much admired Climber is found, I 
think, only in damp rich soils of the Lower District. 
It stands cultivation remarkably well in the Middle 
District. The leaves are pinnate, like those of the 
Locust; and the flowers are of the size and structure 
of the Garden Pea, purplish-blue, in large pendent 
compact clusters 4 to 6 inches long. We have no 
other woody Vine answering to these characters. 
The stem is exceedingly tough and serves well for 
withes or ligatures. 

Carolina Jessamine. (Gelsemium sempervi- 
rens, Ait.) — No plant is more common in the Lower 
District, but it reaches very little into the Middle. 
It extends northward into Virginia, but becomes 


much more luxuriant as we go south. Its graceful 
evergreen leaves, the profusion of its large, bright yel- 
low and cleliciously fragrant blossoms, render this vine 
the pride of our forest. The odor of the flowers in a 
close room sometimes induces headache. Most of the 
plant, especially the root, taken internally, is narcotic 
and poisonous. A tincture of the root, judiciously 
administered, is useful in rheumatic affections ; but 
in the hands of quacks death has been caused by it. 

(Forsteronia difformis, A. DC.) — A smooth twin- 
ing plant, 6 to 12 feet long, found chiefly in the 
Lower District, but extending into the interior as 
far at least as Wake Count}'. It is sometimes mis- 
taken for the Yellow Jessamine, but the flowers are 
tubular and smaller, more like those of a Wood- 
bine, about 1-3 inch long, and greenish-yellow. The 
fruit is a slender pod, containing seeds that have a 
tuft of down. 

The next Group of three genera have their seeds 
in small dry capsules. 

Wax-work. Bittersweet. (Celastrus scandens, 
Linn.) — This is to me the rarest plant in the State, 
as I have seen but a single stock, near Lin coin ton. 
This is its most southern known limit. It ascends 
trees to the height of 12 or 15 feet. The leaves are 
about 3 inches ?ong, taper pointed, smooth, toothed. 
The berry-like capsule is orange-red, clustered on the 
ends of its short branches, of the size of a large pea, 
bursting when mature and disclosing 3 to 6 scarlet 
seeds. In this state it is quite an ornamental vine. 


(Decumaria barbara, Linn.) —A pretty vine as- 
cending trunks by means of rootlets insinuated into 
the bark, after the manner of the Poison Vine. The 
leaves are 3 to 4 inches long, broadly ovate, opposite, 
rather thick and shining, generally with scattered 
teeth towards the upper end. The flowers are small, 
white and fragrant, in showy compound clusters on 
the ends of the branches, opening in May. This is 
found in the Lower District only, and is unknown 
north of this State. 

Wild Ginger. Big Sarsaparilla. (Aristolo- 
chia Sipho, L'Her.) — Found in rich soils all along 
our mountain rivulets, climbing over bushes, and 
sometimes ascending trees. The stems are occasion- 
ally 2 inches thick. The leaves are roundish, heart- 
shaped, 8 to 12 inches broad, and slightly downy on 
the underside. The flower is coarse, brownish-pur- 
ple, li inch long, somewhat tubular, with top cut 
into three segments, below which it is contracted and 
curved like a Dutch pipe, from which, in some parts 
of the United States, it -has gotten the name of 
Dutchman 's Pipe. The root is very aromatic and 
stimulant, like Ginger, and would serve as a medi- 
cine where these properties are indicated. 

The two remaining genera have naked seeds, which 
are remarkable for their long feathered tails. 

Virgin's Bower. (Clematis Virginiana, Linn.) 

—A partly woody vine, 10 to 15 feet long, climbing 

over thickets and fences. It is found from the coast 

to the mountains, generally near streams, but is less 


common in the Lower District. The leaves are com- 
posed of 3 ovate leaflets which are a little cut. The 
flowers are in loose clusters, J to i inch broad, and 
clothing the upper part of the vine with a flowing 
mantle of white. The flowers are succeeded by 
heads of feathered seeds which are still more orna- 
mental than the blossoms. 

(Atragene Americana, Sims.) — This is accredited 
by others to the mountains of North Carolina, but it 
has escaped my own observation. It is a very showy 
vine, both in fruit and flower, and, like the preced- 
ing, is woody only in its lower parts. It climbs over 
rocks and bushes by means of its leaf-stalks. The 
leaves are in pairs on opposite sides of the stem, 
making 4 in a circle, each long leaf-stalk bearing 3 
leaflets. The flowers are bluish-purple, 2 to 3 inches 
broad, followed by heads of seeds which have long 
feathered tails. 



View of the Species, 



Fleshy Fruit. — Stone Fruit. — Plums, Cherries, 
Mock Orange, Devil Wood. Pulpy Fruit. — Apples, 

Berries. — Red. — Holly, Service Tree, Dogwood, 
Mountain Ash, Magnolias, Yellow Wood, Hackberry. 
Black or Blue. — Mulberry, Palmetto, Buckthorn, 
Black Gum, Cedar, Sassafras, Red Bay. Whitish. — 
China Tree. 

Dry Fruit. — Nuts. — Oaks, Hickories, Walnuts, 
Chestnut, Chinquapin, Beech, Bucke} 7 e. Cones. — 
Pines, Firs, Spruces, White Cedar or Juniper, Cy- 
press. Pods. — Locust, Honey Locust, Catalpa, Coffee 
Tree, Red Bud. Tassels. — Willows, Poplars or Cot- 
tonwoods, Birches, Hornbeam, Iron Wood. Bur. — 
Sweet Gum. Nutlets. — Sycamore, Planer Tree. Flat 
and Winged. — Maples, Ash-leaved Maple, Ashes, 
Elms. Capsules, Large. — Tulip Tree or Poplar, 
Loblolly Bay. Small. — Linn Tree, Sorrel Tree. 
Winged Nuts. — Snow Drop Tree. 



Fleshy Fruit.— Stone Fruit.— Plums, Fringe 
Tree, Oil Nut. Large Fleshy.— Papaws, Spanish 
Bayonet, Bear Grass, Roses. Red.-— Red Haws, Bar- 
berry, Bermuda Mulberry, Huckleberry, Creeping 
Huckleberry, Bearberry, Cranberry, Elder, Coral 
Berry, Chokeberry, Yopon, Dahoon Holly, Sumach, 
Poison Oak, Flowering Raspberry, Mountain Tea, 
Spice Bush, Pond Bush, Leather Wood, (Ilex.)* 

Berries. — Black or Blue. — Black Haws, Gallber- 
ries, Dogwoods, Privet, Carolina Buckthorn, Prickly 
Ash, Elder, Dwarf Palmetto, Gooseberries, Currants, 
Huckleberries, Sparkleberry, Blackberries, Dew- 
berry, Raspberry. Whitish.— Mistletoe, Deerberry, 

Dry Fruit. — Nuts. — Hazel, Buckeye. Nutlets. — 
Witch Hazel, Button Bush, Dwarf Alder, Wax Myr- 
tle, Sweet Fern. Tassels and Cones.— Willows, Al- 
der, Arbor Vitas. Bladdery.— Bladder Nut, Sweet 
Shrub. Flat and Winged.— Maples, Hop Tree. Naked 
Seeds.— Marsh Elder, Groundsel. Grass-like.— Reed 

or Cane. 

Dry Capsules.— Laurel, Ivy, Wicky, Honey- 
suckles, Dog Laurel, Fetter Bush, Pepper Bush, 
Stagger Bush, (Andromeda), (Cassandra), (Leuco- 
thce), Sweet Pepper Bush, (Itea), Sand Myrtle, He 
Huckleberry, False Heath, Syringa, Hydrangea, 

*N. B. Plants without a popular name are enclosed in parentheses, 
and will be found also in the Index. 


Hardhack, Queen of the Meadow, Bush Honey- 
suckle, Strawberry Bush, Burning Bush, Trailing 
Arbutus, (Hudsonia), Swamp Loosestrife, Toothache 
Tree, Indigo Bush, Mock Orange, (Stuartia), (Stil- 
lingia), (Darbya), (Buckleya), Red Root, Yellow 
Root, Rock Rose, (Ascyrum), Flowering Moss. 


Berries. — Reddish. — Grapes, Woodbine, Bamboo, 
Poison Vine, (Cocculus). Blackish. — Grapes, China 
Root, Bamboo, Sarsaparilla, Virginia Creeper, Rattan, 
Moonseed, (Sageretia), (Berchemia). 

Pods. — Trumpet Flower, Cross Vine, Jessamine, 
Virgin's Bower, (Forsteronia). 

Capsules.— Bittersweet,Wild Ginger, (Decumaria). 

Naked and Feathered Seeds. — Virgin's Bower, 


Plants of NorthCarolina. 

In 1867 the State printed the Second Part of Dr. 
Curtis's report to the State Geologist, being "a cata- 
logue of the indigenous and naturalized plants of the 

The catalogue, says Dr. Curtis in his preface, is of 
" interest to scientists as determining the localities 
and range of our vegetation, and as being much the 
most extensive local list of plants ever published in 
North America." 

It is not reprinted here, because those interested 
can obtain copies on application to the State authori- 
ties at Raleigh. It is a pamphlet of 156 pages, 8vo. 
For the general reader, it is sufficient to give here 
Dr. Curtis's 


Flowering Plants. 

Exogenous, . . . 1,362 species. 
Endogenous, . . . 511 



Flowerless Plants. 
Filices, . . . 
Lycopodiaceae, . 
Musci, . . . 
Hepaticese, . . 
Lichenes, . . 

Fungi — Hymenomycetes, 
Coni o my cetes, 
Ascomycetes, . 
Doubtful Genera, 

Algae, . 













Total species, 4,849 


Forests, Farms, Population, 




Forests of North Carolina 


Dr. Curtis's Woody Plants of North Caro- 
lina, reprinted in Part I. of this book, furnishes in- 
formation complete and accurate of a Flora which is 
the wonder of the botanist. 

Part II., it is believed, conveys knowledge as com- 
plete and accurate of the location and extent of 
standing forests. 

First, is reprinted the Botanical Chapter from Dr. 
Kerr's Geological Survey of North Carolina, Volume 
I. ; and, 

Second, reports from the several counties of the 
State, obtained by the publisher and compiler of this 
volume from citizens esteemed the best informed. 


It has long been known to botanists that the terri- 
tory of North Carolina presents one of the finest 
fields in the United States for collection, on account 
of the great variety and interest of its vegetable 


productions. Many plants of northern habit, such 
as are common in the White Mountains, for example, 
and along the northern lakes, find their southern 
geographical limit in the mountains of this State ; 
and quite a number of others spread from the Gulf 
and the Mississippi Valley to the Cape Fear, and 
even to Pamlico Sound. So that the flora of this State 
is continental in character and range, combining the 
botanical features of both extremes as well as of the 
intermediate regions. 

The results of the preceding discussion of the 
climatology of the State furnish ample explanation 
of the fact. The close connection between climate 
and organic life, and the decisive control which meteor- 
ological conditions exert over the whole character and 
range and form of its development, render it practi- 
cable to infer the latter from the former, at least as 
to general outlines. 

But it happens that the botany of North Carolina 
has received much earlier attention and a far greater 
amount of study, and has been much more fully 
worked out than its climatology, so that the inferen- 
tial process has needed to be reversed, and the range 
and character of the climate to be deduced from 
botanical data. This is due in large part to the at- 
tractive nature of the field to the botanical explorer, 
which has engaged the interest and study of some of 
the most famous botanists of both Europe and Amer- 
ica, from the time of Bar tram's tour, in 1776, and of 
the elder Michaux, 1787, and of the younger, an 


equally distinguished botanist, in 1802, to the later 
explorations of Nuttall, and of Dr. Gray and Mr. 
Carey, who traversed the higher ranges of our moun- 
tains in 1841, and especially of the Rev. Dr. Curtis, 
to whoJn the State owes a debt, in this regard, which 
she does not yet fully appreciate. It is due to him 
more than to any one else, — to his skill and zeal in 
his favorite science, that North Carolina stands 
among the foremost of the States in respect to the 
completeness as well as the scientific accuracy of the 
knowledge which the world possesses of her singular 
botanical wealth. 

In witness of the remarkably wide range of veget- 
able forms, corresponding to the variety of climatic 
conditions, may be cited the fact of the occurrence 
within the limits of the State on the one hand, of 
the white pine (pinus strobus) and the black spruce 
Rabies nigra), which are found along the Appalachi- 
ans from North Carolina to the White Mountains and 
Canada, and of the hemlock spruce (abies Canadensis), 
whose range reaches from our mountains to Hudson's 
Bay ; and on the other, of several species of magno- 
lia and the palmetto, which have their northern limit 
in the southeast part of the State and spread thence 
to the Gulf. And the same point might be illustrated 
even more strongly to the botanist, by the mention 
of other but inconspicuous species among the lower 
orders of plants, as the mosses, lichens, etc. 

And as concerns the variety of plants which char- 
acterizes the flora of the State, it is sufficient to men- 


tion the fact that Dr. Curtis's Catalogue contains 
nearly 2,500 species, leaving out the mushrooms 
Qfungi), of which there is about an equal number, or 
almost 5,000 in all. 

Dr. Cooper in his general description of the " For- 
ests and Trees of North America " in the Smithsonian 
Report for 1858, says : " Coming next " (from the 
Canadian) " to the Appalachian province, we find a 
vast increase in the variety of our forest trees. In 
fact, looking at its natural products collectively, one 
of the most striking, as compared to the rest of the 
world between the 30th and 45th degrees of north 
latitude, is its richness in trees, which will compare 
favorably with almost any part of the tropics. It 
contains more than 20 species which have no repre- 
sentatives in the temperate climates of the old world, 
and a far greater number of species of the forms 
found there." Some of our most valuable timber 
trees are wholly wanting, as the hickory. And while 
there are not 50 indigenous species of trees in Europe 
which attain a height of 50 feet, there are above 
140 in the United States, and more than 20 of these 
exceed 100 feet. Says Dr. Curtis, "In all the ele- 
ments which render forest scenery attractive, no por- 
tion of the United States presents them in happier 
combination, in greater perfection, or in larger extent 
than the mountains of North Carolina." 

And in order to realize the extent to which this 
richness of forest development is concentrated within 
the area of this State, it is only necessary to call at- 



tention to the distribution of a few kinds which are 
dominant and characteristic. Of species found in 
the United States (east of the Rocky Mountains), 
there are 




19 in North Carol 

Pines (trees), 



8 « " 




4 u u 




3 " " 




2 u M 




3 « " 




5 « M 




6 " « 




7 « M 

And as to the first and most important group of 
the list, Dr. Curtis has called attention to the very 
striking fact that there are more species of oaks in 
this State " than in all of the States north of us, and 
only one less than in all the Southern States, east of 
the Mississippi." 

It will be observed that -the kinds of trees which 
characterize this flora include chiefly such as are most 
valuable in the arts. The long-leaf pine alone is the 
basis of industries whose annual products in this 
State are not less than $3,000,000. The juniper and 
cypress have long been a source of large revenues to 
the whole eastern region. And it is worthy of men- 
tion in this connection, that, besides the present crop 
of trees, there are over large areas of the swamp 
lands several successive generations of buried forests, 


whose timber is in good preservation, ready to be ex- 
humed when the present growth shall have been 

The most characteristic and. prevalent species of 
the middle region are the oaks. Several kinds of 
white oak, so much in demand, and so highly prized 
in ship building and numerous domestic arts, are 
abundant in all parts of this division and especially 
in the mountains. There are also large tracts of 
white pine on both sides of the Blue Ridge. The 
hickories are found everywhere, and the black walnut 
is plentiful in the river bottoms and on the fertile 
slopes of the mountains, so common as to be used for 
fencing ; and the wild cherry, mahogany (black birch), 
and several species of maple furnish abundant cabi- 
net materials; and to these should be added the 
extensive forests of holly in the eastern region. 

Nearly every one of the 20 kinds of timber admit- 
ted to the New York ship-yards as suitable for build- 
ing vessels is found in this State in abundance ; and 
since the forests of the North Atlantic States are 
very nearly exhausted, and timber for ship building 
is brought to the coast from the upper Mississippi, 
and even foreign governments are exporting large 
supplies for their navy yards from the interior of the 
continent, it is evident that our forests have a value 
and are entitled to a consideration which they have 
never received among us. We have still some 40,- 
000 square miles of forests of which the larger part 
is as yet un violated by the woodman's axe. And I 


think it safe to say that the intrinsic value of this 
heritage alone is such, that within ten years it will be 
seen, that it exceeds the present total valuation of the 
entire property of the State. And it is time for the 
people of the State, and its legislators especially, to 
begin to realize and take account of the fact, that 
here is one of the most valuable, as it is also one of 
the most undeveloped and little considered of her 
natural resources. And its value is appreciating 
more rapidly than that of any other kind of property 
in the State ; and this from two causes, the operation 
of which is incessant and rapid, and the results inev- 
itable and soon to become actual, viz. : the rapid ex- 
haustion of the more accessible forests of the conti- 
nent and the constantly accelerating consumption of 
their products, and the increase and cheapening of 
the means of transportation to those parts of the 
world where the demand is greatest. 


Alexander. (Area, 318 sq. miles.)— Taylorsville, 
Oct. 13, 1882. — We have in this county white oak, 
post oak, red oak, black oak, Spanish oak, and chest- 
nut oak; black and yellow pine, and some white 
pine ; cedar, poplar or tulip tree, maple, beech, birch, 
mahogany, hickory, dogwood, walnut, cherry, chest- 
nut, ash, black and sweet gum, cucumber tree, elm, 
etc. The prevailing growth is the different varieties 


of oak and pine. At least one half of the county is 
covered with native forest, to say nothing about what 
is covered with old-field pine. — J. P. M. 

Anson. (525 square miles.) — Raleigh, Sept. 29, 
1882. — Anson produces as great a variety of timbers, 
perhaps, as can be found in any one county in the 
State. It is bounded on the east and north by the 
Pee Dee and Rocky rivers, into which flow numerous 
small streams that traverse the county, and along 
which are broad areas of rich bottom lands that are 
covered with heavy growth of the finest timbers. 
The western boundary of the Long-leaf Pine region 
passes across the eastern end of the county, covering 
perhaps one fourth of its area with timber of very 
superior quality. On the uplands the predominant 
growth is pine, oak, and hickory, each of which is 
represented by several species ; but everywhere al- 
most are to be found dogwood, ash, poplar, gum, 
black jack, birch, beech, elm, maple, and persimmon. 
Along the streams the haw and yellow willow abound. 
The wooded acreage is about one third of the entire 
area of the county. — L. L. P. 

Ashe. (468 square miles.) — Jefferson, Sept. 2, 
1882. — There is no pine in this county except white 
pine and tamarack, and not very much of the latter, 
— perhaps 1,000 acres. There is perhaps 5,000 acres 
of white pine forest in this county of good quality 
and of good stand. The prevailing growths of other 
timber are chestnut, white oak, black oak, chestnut 
oak, water oak, and Spanish oak or red oak, hickory, 


walnut, poplar, ash, sugar maple, silver maple, etc. 
There is a large acreage of spruce pine, and there 
are large quantities of birch, beech, mahogany, cu- 
cumber, locust, wild cherry, buckeye, etc. The 
wooded acreage is about seventy per cent. — J. W. T. 

Bladen. (1,000 sq. miles.) — Elizabethtown, Sept. 
7, 1882. — Long-leaf pine is the prevailing growth, 
except on the river and creeks, where there are 
hickory, different kinds of oak, some walnut, ash, 
etc. My estimate is that nine tenths of the county 
is in timber. — J. A. M. 

Brunswick. (975 sq. miles.) — Town Creek, Sept. 
11, 1882.— All of our uplands are long-leaf pine and 
scrub oaks. Our bays and swamps abound with cy- 
press, ash, poplar, juniper, and gum. On the sea-coast 
from Cape Fear to the South Carolina line there is live- 
oak and cedar, valuable for ship-building. — E. W. T. 

Brunswick,Columbus, Bladen, Robeson, Rich- 
mond, Anson, Union, Mecklenburg, Lincoln, 
Gaston, Cleveland. (Area, 7,675 sq. miles.) Route 
of Carolina Central Railroad. — Shoe Heel, Aug. 24, 
1882. — Brunswick County has a wood acreage of 
about two thirds. Prevailing growths are pine, 
cypress, and oak, of which one half is pine. 

Columbus County has a wood acreage of about two 
thirds. Prevailing growths are pine, oak, and cypress, 
of which one half is pine. 

Bladen County has a wood acreage of about two 
thirds. Prevailing growths are pine, oak, and cy- 
press, of which one half is pine. 


Robeson County has a wood acreage of about two 
thirds. Prevailing growths are pine, oak, and cy- 
press, of which one half is pine. 

Richmond County has a wood acreage of about 
two thirds. Prevailing growths are pine, juniper, 
and oak, of which one half is pine. — W. B. S. 

Charlotte, Aug. 28, 1882.— Cleveland: white, post, 
black, red, Spanish, water, and some chestnut oak ; 
hickory, ash, walnut, and some poplar, and short- 
leaf pine. Oaks are the prevailing growth in this 

Gaston : About same as above, except that more 
pine is found in this county. 

Lincoln : Same. 

Mecklenburg : All the oaks grow here ; also hick- 
ory, ash, maple, birch, elm, poplar, and short-leaf 
pine and some walnut. Oak and hickory is the pre- 
vailing growth. 

Union : All the different oaks grow in this county, 
but not so abundant as in the counties named above. 
Short-leaf pine is the most abundant. 

Anson : White oak ; post, black, red, Spanish and 
water oak ; hickory, poplar, ash, elm, sweet gum ; 
birch, short-leaf pine. South-east part of county has 
some long-leaf pine. — T. W. W. 

Caldwell, Wilkes, Alleghany, Ashe, Wa- 
tauga, Mitchell, Yancey, Burke. (Area, 3,468 
sq. miles ) — Patterson, Aug. 29, 1882. — .... I now 
address myself to your questions, and give first a list 
of all the trees that I can now remember as native 


here. 2d. Such as are of commercial value. 3d. 
Acreage and location. 

Native forest growth of Caldwell County. — Oaks : 
White, black, red, Spanish, chestnut, water, post, 
scrub, black jack. Chestnut, one kind. Pine : Yel- 
low, white, spruce or hemlock, black, alligator (?), 
old-field, balsam or fir. Hickory : White, red, scaly- 
bark. Maple : Sugar, bird's-eye, white, curly, black. 
Holly, one kind. Red elm. Red cedar. Locust: 
White, yellow, and black. Botanists may not admit 
this distinction, but there is a difference. Walnut : 
Black, white. Poplar : Yellow, white. Beech, one 
kind. Sycamore, one kind. Birch: White. Ash, 
one kind. Linn, one kind (spelling not vouched for). 
Cucumber (Magnolia cucumifera). Dogwood. Per- 
simmon. Mulberry : White, yellow. Wild Cherry. 
Mahogany, or Mountain Birch (local name). Wahoo 
(spelling doubtful). Slippery Elm. Catalpa. Aspeu. 
Willow : White, golden, weeping. Buckeye. 

Such as are of commercial value, and their uses. — 
White Oak ; (ship timber, wagons, staves.) Chest- 
nut ; (furniture panels, etc.) Yellow Pine ; (lum- 
ber.) White Pine; (lumber, sash, doors, blinds.) 
Hickory ; (wagon material, handles, etc. All these 
kinds used, but white the best). Maple : Bird's-eye, 
Curly; (furniture, panels, etc. White and Black- 
used for heavy frame-work for machines requiring 
strength and durability.) Holly; (to some extent 
for furniture, but more for spools, bobbins, etc.) 
Locust, yellow ; (ship pins and posts.) Walnut. 


black ; (furniture, ornamental work.) Poplar, yellow ; 
(shingles and lumber.) I think this wood would be 
excellent for patterns for foundries, but is as yet un- 
tried. Ash ; (wagons, handles, panels.) Dogwood ; 
(shuttles.) Persimmon ; (shuttles.) Wild Cherry ; 
(furniture and ornamental work.) In addition to the 
above, the chestnut oak is valuable for its bark for 
tanning purposes, for which it is more valuable than 
all other trees. 

Remarks. — The southern one-third of the county 
of Caldwell, or that part drained by the Catawba 
River, has a uniform and heavy growth of yellow 
pine, to the exclusion of every other growth. This 
covers an area of perhaps one hundred square miles, 
in forest. 

North of this, on the spurs and in the valleys of 
the Brushy Mountain range, is a forest growth of 
great and remarkable variety, embracing all the oaks, 
poplars, and to some extent nearly all the trees enu- 
merated above, with the exception of the balsam or 
fir. The prevailing growth, however, is oak, hickory, 
and chestnut. 

Still north of this, and between the Yadkin River 
and the top of the Blue Ridge, come in the walnut 
and cherry, cucumber, locust, maples, and white 
pine ; and in the extreme north, along the high peaks 
of the Blue Ridge, the balsam, which is only valuable 
for the aromatic and medicinal gum found in blisters 
on its outer bark. 

As I have already remarked, our forests are greatly 


diversified except in the southern part of the county, 
where the yellow pine prevails. In order to give 
you an approximate idea of the location of these 
forests, I will say that in the southern part of the 
county there is an area of yellow pine covering 
65,000 acres. In the central part of the county, from 
west to east, is the oak, hickory, chestnut, etc., em- 
bracing about 102,000 acres. 

North of this, toward the top of the Blue Ridge % 
comes in all the white pine, walnut, cherry, etc., that 
we have ; and I suppose we might say that here the 
white pine was the prevailing growth, covering at a 
rough estimate 122,000 acres. 

So that we have a total wooded area as follows : 

Yellow pine, 65,000 acres 

Oak, hickory, etc., • - • 102,000 " 
White pine, 122,000 " 

Total forest area, .... 289,000 acres 

What has been said of Caldwell applies equally, 
except perhaps as to geographical location of the 
forests, to the counties of Wilkes, Alleghany, Ashe, 
Watauga, Mitchell, Yancey, and Burke, except that 
in Caldwell alone will you find any considerable 
quantity of yellow pine, and in all the others men- 
tioned, except Wilkes and Burke, there is more 
white pine than we have. Outside of these north- 
western counties above mentioned you will find no 
white pine in North Carolina worth mentioning. 

There is also more cherry, walnut, and ash in 


Ashe, Watauga, Mitchell, and Yancey than we have, 
and this valuable timber extends on west to Duck- 
town in large quantities and great perfection. 

Of the other north-western counties noted above, 
I estimate the wooded areas as follows : 

Wilkes, 480,000 acres 

Alleghany, 179,200 

Ashe, 216,000 

Watauga, 245,400 

Mitchell, 260,000 

Yancey, 234,000 

Burke, 302,000 

E. J. 

Camden. (280 square miles.) South Mills, Aug. 
24, 1882. — There is considerable Long-Leaf Pine (Lob- 
lolly) in this county. Half of our lands are in the 
primitive forest, and at least 20 per cent, of the growth 
of timber now standing is this kind of pine. Onr 
swamps, which cover at least one-fifth of the area of 
Camden, abound in juniper and cypress (both kinds 
very valuable), of which 60 to 75 per cent, have been 
removed. Some oak is still standing, but has mostly 
been cut, not over 10 per cent, remaining. No other 
kinds of valuable timber remaining in the county. — 
F. N. M. 

Carteret. (525 square miles.) — Sanders' Store, 
Sept. 26, 1882. — The timber in our forests consists of 
long-leaf and short-leaf pine, as the principal and 
most abundant kinds ; the various kinds of oaks, the- 


most abundant kinds being the red and black-jack va- 
rieties. Our swamps abound with oak and cypress. 
We have some hickory, but of smaller size. — J.W. S. 

Cabarrus. (400 square miles.) — Pioneer Mills, 
Aug. 26, 1882, — We have short-leaf (yellow) pine, hick- 
ory, post, black, red, white and Spanish oaks. Oaks of 
the different varieties (interspersed with pine in cer- 
tain sections) are the prevailing growth. But little 
walnut or finer woods. In the better sections of 
lands timber is very scarce. In the poorer sections 
timber more abundant and of but little value now. — 
J. C. B. 

Catawba. (375 square miles.) — Hickory, Sept. 6, 
1882. — We have very little walnut and hickory. Our 
forests are of yellow pine, white, post, black and red 
oaks. Pine is the principal growth. — H. 

Chatham. (825 square miles.) — Pittsboro, Sept. 
11, 1882. — Our forests consist of oaks, hickory, dog- 
wood, walnut, old-field pine. The different varieties 
of oak, the prevailing growth. — J. A. A. 

Caswell. (400 square miles.) — Leasburg, Aug. 22, 
1882. — In quantity the oak predominates ; white, 
red, post oak, Spanish, black and willow oak, are 
found in abundance in all original forests, in every 
part of the county, and in the western portion the 
chestnut oak is abundant. Hickory is next most 
abundant. The pine is in all the original forests fast 
passing away, though there are sections of the county 
in which this valuable tree is abundant. There is 
little or no walnut now in our forests, but there are 


many large old walnuts, that, though scattered, would 
afford large quantities of valuable timber. The dog- 
wood is abundant, and is in all parts of the county ; 
so is the persimmon. The poplar (tulip) is not abun- 
dant, yet there is a good quantity of this valuable tim- 
ber in all our forests. The gums (both sweet and 
black) are common ; so is the sycamore. Apart from 
our original forests there are large tracts of country 
covered with forests of pines, which is a valuable 
local timber used in the construction of tobacco 
houses and log dwelling houses and other buildings 
important to the husbandman and cultivator of the 
soil. So much of the land of Caswell is now covered 
with a growth of trees, called here the "second 
growth," of a mixed character, with oak, hickory, 
pine, gum and dogwood, etc., prevailing, that it 
sometimes proves difficult to ascertain the end of the 
second growth and the beginning of the original 
forest ; and there are such extensive tracts grown up 
in young pine, which if left alone a few years will 
become forests indeed, that it would not be an over 
estimate to say that one-half of the land of Caswell 
county was either in original forest or in process of 
making forests. — G. N. T. 

Cleveland. (425 square miles.)— Cleveland Mills, 
Aug. 25, 1882. — Our forests are composed principally 
of the usual variety of oaks, black, red, Spanish, 
white and post oak, with some chestnut oak on the 
high ridges and mountains, yellow pine, hickory ; and 
on the low lands and streams white maple, beech, birch 


and sycamore. Chestnut is abundant in the moun- 
tain portion of the county, and a considerable amount 
of wild or black locust. Our woods, especially " old 
fields," as they are called here, also abound in dog- 
wood. When our ancestors "wore out" a piece of 
land and abandoned its cultivation it never failed to 
bring an abundant crop of bt old field " pine. It has 
very little heart, and for exposed parts is not durable, 
but still it is quite valuable for many purposes, grow- 
ing very tall and thick on the ground. We also have 
the persimmon, a very hard wood. Walnut is scarce 
here, though there is a little black walnut in the 
mountains, and a few domestic trees around the 
farms. The prevailing growth is yellow pine, a vari- 
ety of oaks and hickory. Taking the whole county 
over there is about 50 per cent, in virgin forest. 
With the lands covered with second or old field 
growth there may be 60 or 65 per cent, in timber. — II. 
F. S. 

Cumberland. (950 square miles.) — Fayetteville, 
Aug. 25, 1882. — I have, with the aid of others, with 
some care made an approximate estimate of the prin- 
cipal woods of this county, statement appended : 

Number of acres, 425,000 

Long-leaf Pines, 350,000 

Converted into lumber would make, 350,000,000 ft. 
On same lands Short-leaf in bottoms 

and swamps, 50,000,000 " 

Poplars, • . . . 150,000,000 " 

Cypress, 400,000,000 " 


Black, sweet and other gums, . . 300,000,000 ft. 

Juniper, 60,000,000 " 

Beech, 50,000,000 " 

White, water and red oak, . . . 50,000,000 " 

Besides considerable quantities of dogwood, hick- 
ory, bull bay, mulberry ; and in river bottoms and 
adjacent, sycamore and black walnut. — J. D. W. 

Cumberland, Harnett, Moore, Chatham, 
Randolph, Guilford, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, 
Yadkin, Wilkes, Caldwell, Mitchell. (Area 
7,656 square miles.) Route of Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Railroad. — Extracts from Special Report of 
State G-eologist Kerr. — " The above facts — the variety 
of soils, the wide range of temperature, and the 
abundant rainfall, have, of course, found expression 
in a correspondingly great range of natural products, 
the flora having a really continental breadth and va- 
riety, from the palmetto and live oak on the one hand, 
to the white pine and Canadian fir on the other, so 
that what I have said in the geological report of the 
variety and richness of the forests of the entire State 
may be applied with scarce a modification to this 
tract, which includes both the extremes that gave its 
unique breadth of climatic and botanical character- 
istics to the whole. That is, there are about one 
hundred species of woods — more than in all Europe ; 
of twenty-two species of oaks in the United States 
(east of the Rocky Mountains), nineteen are found 
here ; all (eight) of the pines ; four out of five 
spruces ; all (five) of the maples ; both of the wal- 


nuts ; three of the five birches ; six of the eight hick- 
ories ; and all (seven) of the magnolias ; more spe- 
cies of oaks than in all the States north of us. It 
goes without saying that here is a source of business, 
of freights and manufactures* capable of immediate 
and indefinite expansion and development. Of the 
twenty kinds of timber admitted to the ship-yards of 
New York, nearly all are found here. The following 
is a partial catalogue of the commercial timbers com- 
mon to one or another section along this tract : Pine, 
six species ; white pine ; fir, three species ; hemlock ; 
juniper; cypress; red cedar; oak, fourteen species; 
hickory, six species ; walnut, two species ; chestnut ; 
beech ; black locust ; maple, three species ; ash, four 
species; elm, three species; cherry; holly; dogwood; 
.gum, two species ; sassafras ; palmetto ; magnolia 
((incumber tree) ; persimmon ; poplar ; birch, two 
species ; sycamore ; tulip tree (poplar) ; linn (bass- 
wood) ; sixty-four species, valuable for their timber. 
Among these, a single species, the long-leaf pine, 
yields in timber and naval stores, products of $3,000,- 
O00 value annually; and the long-leaf pine belt is 
traversed by more than fifty miles of the C. F. & Y. 
V. R. R. There are many other trees and shrubs of 
less importance, or whose value consists less, or not 
at all, in their timber, but in their leaves or bark, as 
the sumac, sweet gum, cane, etc. ; and in addition to 
these, several hundred species of medicinal plants are 
gathered for export to all parts of the world (such 
as ginseng, hellebore, etc.), amounting to many thou- 


sand tons a year, chiefly from the mountain section. 
Thus it will be seen, that in these indigenous foresf 
products are found the means and materials for large 
businesses and freights for an indefinite time ; and 
the value of these resources, and the demand for 
them, increases rapidly year by year, as the accessible 
forest regions of the continent are more and more 
rapidly suffering exhaustion. The shops of Pitts- 
burg, with their annual consumption of 50,000,000 
cubic feet of timber, having exhausted the forests of 
several States, are already turning this way for their 
future supply ; and so of Cincinnati and of Chicago, 
as the forests of Michigan and Upper Wisconsin 
swiftly disappear. 

"Cape Fear Section of Route. — From the upper 
Cape Fear, above Fayetteville for 50 miles, will* 
come large shipments of timber and naval stores, «s 
heretofore. There are many hundreds of square 
miles of the long-leaf pine forests in this section yet 
to be opened to commerce. It will be seen, by refer- 
ence to the United States Census, that this trade 
amounts to more than three millions per annum, and 
a large part of it is concentrated along the Cape Fear. 
The returns for 1879 give the shipments of naval 
stores from Fayetteville as aggregating 96,000 barrels. 

"Deep River Section. — In this section the long 
leaf pine and oak forests meet. There are some fine 
bodies of the latter along the river bottoms and those 
of its tributaries, and all over the intervening ridges 
and hills, for a dozen miles above the Gulf; and with 


the various species of oak are found other valuable 
Voods — walnut, hickory and dogwood, etc., in abun- 
dance. A company from Baltimore are making ar- 
rangements to ship large quantities of the two latter 
woods this season. 

"Midland Section. — This portion of the tract in- 
cludes the upper part of Randolph and Chatham, a 
large part of Guilford and Forsyth, Stokes, Yadkin, 
Surry, Wilkes and Caldwell — a region of nearly as 
great extent, and of more varied- and abundant re- 
sources, than some entire States. It contains wide 
stretches of the finest forests in their primeval state. 
They abound, in extraordinary richness, along the 
streams in the southern part of Guilford and along 
many of the intervening ridges, and on the upper 
waters of Haw River in the western and northern 
portions of the county ; and again on the head 
streams of the Dan, on the flanks of the Sauratown 
Mountains, and in the valleys of the Yadkin and its 
numerous tributaries that come down from the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. These will furnish immense 
quantities of white oak, and other species of oak, 
hickory, walnut, poplar, while the uplands and ridges 
and the spurs of the mountains abound in hickory, 
dogwood, yellow pine, chestnut and black locust. 
And above Patterson there are large forests of white 

"Mountain Section. — The timber products of this 
section are also of immense extent. The largest and 
finest cherry and walnut timber grows in these moun- 


tain coves, with curled maple and black birch (or 
mahogany). I have seen here forests o,f cherry, and 
have measured trees of more than three feet in diam- 
eter, and clear of limb for 75 feet. And almost un- 
broken forests of the heaviest oak timber ; and chest- 
nut, poplar, hemlock, white pine, linn, black locust 
and birch, mantle cove, ridge and mountain slope, to 
the highest summits." 

Currituck. (200 sq. miles.) — Baelie, Aug. 28, x 
1882. — The navy yard at Portsmouth, Va., has long 
since absorbed all the valuable oak. The avaricious 
and insatiable saw mills, together with the desire of 
every man who could buy a pair of oxen and " Car- 
ry-Log," have demolished and transported nearly all of 
our pine ; to such an extent have they carried on 
lumbering that many pieces or sticks will not measure 
100 feet board measure. Holly all gone to the north- 
ern cities. Some cypress yet remains in inaccessible 
swamps. Juniper very scarce, but cheap buckets in 
abundance. This certainly looks like a gloomy re- 
port, but more truth than poetry. It is true we have 
some scattering small tracts of fair pine, but few in- 
deed. The prevailing growth now that reaches the 
vision is pine — pine saplings, sweet and black gum, 
and occasionally some poplar and hickory. I cannot 
inform you with accuracy of the wooded acreage, 
but I presume I would not be far from correct to say 
three-fifths.— W. H. C. 

Davie. (300 sq. miles.) — Farmington, August 29, 
1882. We have the different kinds of oaks, white, 


post, black and red oaks, hickory, poplar, pine, ash, 
gum, walnut, chestnut, dogwood, persimmon, etc. 
The prevailing growth is oak and short-leaf pine. 
The wooded acreage is about one-third — covered with 
oak and short-leaf pine. — G. W. J. 

Davidson. (600 sq. miles.) — Lexington, Sept. 30, 
1882. — We have in our forests oaks, pine, persim- 
mon, walnut, and all the hard woods. The oaks pre- 
dominate, though pine is very abundant. Two 
thirds of the county in woodland. — J. H. W. 

Duplin. (725 sq. miles.)— Faison, Sept. 27, 1882. 
— We have very little long-leaf pine left in the upper 
section of the county ; steam mills and forest fires 
have thinned it out. In a few years we can with 
much difficulty get timber enough to keep up fences 
and furnish firewood. Ours is the cotton section of 
the county. There is a good deal of timber in the 
lower part of the county away from the railroad. 
We have quite a number of large swamps in the 
county, well timbered with short-leaf pine, ash, pop- 
lar, maple, cypress, etc., — by estimation over 55,000 
acres of good unimproved swamp land. Since the 
long-leaf pine has been used and burnt, the forest is 
covered with short-leaf pine, small oaks, and black 
jack.— W. E. H. 

Edgecombe. (500 sq. miles.) — Old Sparta, Aug. 
22, 1882. — Our forests are of long-leaf pine and 
cypress, the former largely predominating. Probably 
fifty per cent, of the land is in woods, but generally 
poorly timbered; vet there is a sufficiency of both 



pine and cypress for home consumption. The Sea- 
board and Raleigh Railroad, now building a bridge 
across the Tar at Tarboro, have imported a large 
portion of their timbers from South Carolina, not 
that such stuff could not be had in this section, but 
it is not now so accessible. — E. C. 

Franklin. (425 sq. miles.)-Louisburg, Sept. 9, 
1882.— We have oak— many varieties, pine, hickory,' 
ash, willow oak, maple, elm, beech, birch, gum — 
several kinds, sycamore, cedar, holly, locust, mul- 
berry, sassafras, some walnut— though not abundant, 
some cypress, and in fact all the varieties of forest 
growth found in the central portion of the State. 
The prevailing growth in the original forests in the 
northern and western portion of the county is oak, 
hickory, yellow pine, dogwood, etc. ; in the southern 
and south-eastern portion of the county, added to 
these is the long-leaf pine. Old-field pine is abun- 
dant all over the county. About ten per cent, of the 
area of the county is in original forest of pine, oak, 
hickory, etc. There is a much larger acreage of 
old-field pine. — J. J. D. 

Forsyth. (350 sq. miles.)— Salem, Aug. 22, 1882. 
In some sections of our county there is considerable 
short-leaf pine, but the prevailing growth is oak, 
mixed with hickory and dogwood. We have some 
poplar, persimmon, etc. The chestnuts are dying 
out fast. Probably one third of the county is in 
forest, one third cut over and growing up in brush, 
old fields thrown out, and old-field pines, and one 


third actually in cultivation. In these last years, 
timber has been cut very fast for building material, 
tobacco boxes, spokes and handles, and shuttle 
blocks, and especially as fuel for our growing towns, 
but I am happy to add that our " fence law " area is 
widening too, and the young growth on many an old 
hillside gives cheering promise for the future. — J. 
W. F. 

Gates. (375 sq. miles.) — Gatlington, Sept. 20, 
1882. — Our forests contain pine, three varieties : 
long-strawed, medium-strawed or ordinary, and the 
short-strawed or rosemary ; oak, several varieties, 
named in order of the prevailing varieties — red, 
white, post, black jack, water, Spanish, turkey, chin- 
quapin, and the over-cup ; ash ; gum, sweet, black, 
and papaw; poplar, persimmon, juniper, cypress, 
cedar, a sprinkling of mulberry, holly, maple, dog- 
wood, sour-wood, elm, beech, birch, and some few 
others. The long-leaved pine is confined mostly to 
the sand banks bordering the Chowan River, though 
it is found to some extent wherever the land is sandy. 
It has all been cut, or nearly so. The prevailing 
varieties are the ordinary pine, oak (red and white), 
gum (sweet and black), ash, hickory. 

I suppose fully three fourths of the area of this 
county is covered by forest, including old fields. 
There is a large quantity of pine timber and a good 
deal of oak. The pine, oak, and cypress are being 
rapidly cut and in a few years will all be gone. — J. 
J. G. 



Gaston. (350 sq. miles.) — Gastonia, Aug. 23, 
1882. — As to the kinds of timber in our forests, pine 
is the most numerous, both yellow and white. No 
long-leaf grows in our section. Our forests are 
about an equal mixture of all the different kinds of 
oaks, such as white, black, red, chestnut, Spanish, 
post, etc. There are also the pin and water oaks, 
which grow along the swamps and watercourses. 
The gum and black jack are found occasionally, but 
the larger portion of our forests is pine, and for the 
most part on the ridges. The most valuable land 
consists of hickory and dogwood, and occasionally 
the walnut. In the swamps, maple, ash, and birch 
are found. About three fifths of our land is yet 
forest, and a great portion of our poorest, worn-out 
old fields have grown up in old-field pines, and when 
cleared up produce cotton and wheat as well, if not 
better than new forest land. The supply of firewood 
timber is very plentiful, but valuable timber for 
rails, planks, shingles, etc , is, becoming very scarce, 
and especially heart timber. Sap timber is inex- 
haustible, but the heart for rails, etc., is becoming so 
scarce that our county demands the fence law. — 
D. A. J. 

Graham. (250 sq. miles.) — Robbinsville, Aug. 27, 
1882. — Our forest woods are walnut, poplar, chest- 
nut, white oak, black oak, chestnut oak, red oak, 
Spanish oak and post oak, hickory, cherry, birch, 
linn, spruce pine, some yellow pine, and much white 
pine. Laurel and ivy are plenty in the mountain 


section. The timber I have named is of a good and 
large healthy growth, from 30 to 70 feet to the first 
limbs, from 2 to 6 feet in diameter. — J. J. C. 

Greene. (300 sq. miles.) — Hookerton, Aug. 24, 
1882. — Oar forests consist mainly of pine. On the 
high dry lands the original growth is pitch or long- 
strawed pine ; most of it has been boxed or bled, and 
consequently more or less damaged for lumber, but 
makes excellent fence. The slashes and low, flat 
lands have what we call slash or short-straw pine, 
which makes excellent building lumber for all pur- 
poses not too much exposed. The under or second 
growth on the ridges is oak. Our swamps have oak, 
ash, cypress, sweet gum, black gum, some hickory. 
Oak for timber is not very abundant. Cypress, pine, 
and gum are in abundance, though the cypress is 
not of the best quality. Walnut is very scarce. Our 
wooded acreage is about equal to the arable land. 
Say one-half our area is in wood ; about two-thirds 
of this is covered with pine, mostly long-leaf. All 
of the second growth of pine is short-leaf ; some of 
that makes good timber. — W. P. O. 

Granville. (750 sq. miles.) — Sassafras Fork, 
Aug. 26, 1882. — In this county the prevailing growth 
is white and post oak, hickory, and pine. In the 
northern part of the county about three-fourths is 
in original growth ; the balance about one-half. — 
R. O. G. 

Halifax. (710 sq. miles.) — Scotland Neck, Sept. 
18, 1882. — The timber in our forests consists of long 


and short-leaf pine, cypress, oak, maple, ash and 
hickory. The prevailing growth is long and short- 
leaf pine, and the different varieties of oak. The 
wooded acreage is about two-thirds of the county, 
say about 270,000 acres, covered with every variety 
of pine, oak, maple, cypress, ash and dogwood. The 
number of acres in original forest growth of the dif- 
ferent varieties of timber is believed to be about one- 
fifth or one-sixth of the wooded acreage. — R. H. S. 

Harnett. (550 sq. miles.) — Lillington, Oct. 10, 
1882. — Long-leaf pine is the principal growth of our 
forests. We have some oak and hickory ; very little 
walnut. On the west side of the county there are 
40,000 acres (in large tracts) of large, merchantable 
pine, what we call " ship timber." At present it is 
not near enough the railroad to be very profitable, 
but the proposed road from Goldsboro to Salisbury 
will make it so. Besides this, we have 100,000 acres 
of pine suitable for saw mills. — B. F. S. 

Henderson. (375 sq. miles.) — Edneyville, Sept. 
15, 1882. — I send you a statement of the timber in 
this county. Common pine, white and spruce pine, 
oak, walnut, hickory, ash, chestnut, poplar, beech and 
locust. These timbers are all fine, large and tall. 
There has been in the last six months a large amount 
of locust pins shipped from this county and they are 
still shipping them. — R. E. 

Haywood. (750 sq. miles.) — Waynesville, Aug. 
28, 1882. — We have an abundance of the following 
timbers : Black walnut, white oak, red and black oak, 


poplar, ash, chestnut, hickory, cherry, linden, buck- 
eye, birch, black gum, dogwood, maple, and a great 
variety of other species. We have also an abun- 
dance of laurel and ivy, from which very fine rustic 
work has been and is being made. As to pine timber, 
we have quite an abundance of spruce pine, some 
yellow pine, and an enormous quantity of balsam. 
The prevailing growths of the county are white oak, 
chestnut, hickory and poplar. — E. P. H. 

Iredell. (600 sq. miles.) — States ville, Aug. 26, 
1882. — The kinds of timber in our forests are, oak 
(white, black, red, post, Spanish, chestnut and indeed 
all varieties), short-leaf pine (white, soft and yellow 
heart), hickory, dogwood, sour-wood, poplar, maple, 
beech, walnut (white and black), etc. The forests of 
this county show a very great variety of timber. The 
prevailing growth is oak, pine and hickory. About 
one-third of the county is woodland. . Of the timber 
land about one-half is covered by oak timber of the 
different varieties. — J. P. C. 

Johnston. (700 sq. miles.)— Smithfield, Sept 7, 
1882. — Of timber in our forests the principal kinds 
are pine, oak, hickory, ash, maple and gum. The 
long-leaf pine is the prevailing growth. The acreage 
covered by the prevailing species is, I suppose, about 
two-thirds.— J. P. W. 

Jackson. (925 sq. miles.)— Webster, Sept, 12, 
1882. — At least four-fifths of this county is yet forest. 
The prevailing growth is oak. The varieties are red 
oak, Spanish oak, black oak, white oak and post oak. 


Locust is found anywhere in the county and in great 
quantities in some places. Hickory grows promiscu- 
ously over the county, and it is very fine. Fine pop- 
lar is found in various parts. Buckeye, beech, birch, 
dogwood, ash, cucumber and others are found in the 
county.— W.H. H. H. 

Lincoln. (275 sq. miles.) — Macpelah, Aug. 28, 
1882. — The timbers of our forests are short-leaf and 
old-field pine, all oaks of this region, dogwood, hick- 
ory, poplar, maple, cherry, walnut, beech and birch, 
linden, elm, ash, chestnut (mostly dead), sour-wood, 
sassafras. The prevailing growth is a mixture of 
pine and oak, with hickory in places ; bottoms have 
poplar and maple. In places, dogwood and sour- 
wood are largely intermixed with prevailing growth. 
Two-thirds of the county is in woods; much of it 
second growth, having been cut for charcoal. Amount 
of pine lumber for building sufficient for present, but 
not over-abundant. Shingle timber is already scarce, 
and oak much used for this purpose. — W. A. G. 

Moore. (825 sq. miles.)— Sanford, Sept. 8, 1882. 
— The kinds of timber in the forests of this county 
are as follows : Long and short leaf pine ; white, 
red, and post oak ; hickory, dogwood, with smaller 
quantities of juniper and ash. The prevailing growth 
is long-leaf pine. The wooded acreage is about 50 
per cent. ; about 40 per cent, long-leaf pine, and 
about 10 per cent, of all others mentioned above. — 
J. D. Mel. 

Montgomery. (575 sq. miles.) — Troy, Aug. 30, 


1882. — The timbers of our forests are : Pine, long 
and short leaf, oak, hiakory, dogwood, maple, ash, 
poplar, and walnut. Long-leaf pine, oak, hickory, 
and dogwood prevail. The wooded acreage is 250,000, 
of which the long-leaf pine occupies about 80,000, 
the rest being taken up by oak, hickory, and dog- 
wood, with the other minor kinds mentioned. — C. 
C. W. 

Madison. (450 sq. miles.) — Marshall, Aug. 25, 
1882. — The kinds of timber are poplar, white oak, 
white pine, hickory, ash, walnut, and some red oak 
and yellow pine. The prevailing growths are hick- 
ory, poplar, white oak, and ash. The wooded acre- 
age is about 80 per cent., and the acreage as covered 
by the prevailing growth about 75 per cent. In the 
mountains you find\many parts covered with buck- 
eye, linn, beech, dogwood, and cherry. The walnut 
and cherry are being cut very fast and shipped to 
eastern markets. — W. W. R. 

' Macon, Clay, Cherokee, Graham, Haywood, 
Jackson, Swain. (3,910 sq. miles.) — Franklin, Aug. 
26, 1882. — I give statement of timbers growing in Ma- 
con County. Black oak, Spanish oak, white oak, post 
oak, chestnut oak, water or shingle oak ; chestnut, 
hickory (both red and white), poplar, linn, ash (both 
black and white), cucumber (two varieties), maple, 
black and white walnut, cherry, spruce pine or hem- 
lock, common black pine, white pine, black jack, 
sycamore, birch, holly, Peruvian tree, dogwood, sour- 
wood, persimmon, sarvis, black locust, yellow locust, 


cedar (scarce), buckeye, black gum, slippery elm, 
beech, iron-wood, wild plum, sassafras, chinquapin, 
crab-apple. Of these timbers, the oaks are more 
generally distributed through our forests than any 
other; then chestnut, the hickory and poplar, etc. 
I have not the means at command to determine the 
percentage of uncleared forest as compared with the 
lands cleared and in cultivation, but I am inclined 
to believe that five-sixths of the whole area of the 
county are in unbroken forests. The oaks prevail 
throughout the whole territory of the county. Clay, 
Cherokee, Graham, Swain, Jackson, and Haywood 
produce similar growths ; and to the list herein given 
you may add balsam for the counties of Swain, Jack- 
son, and Haywood. — C. D. S. 

Hayesville, Clay County, May 8, 1882. — Five 
counties in the extreme western corner of North 
Carolina have since the Atlanta Exposition become 
centres of attraction to geologists, to metallurgists, 
and to all who have either a scientific or a practical 
knowledge of mines and mining. These are Swain, 
with its beautiful marbles of many colors ; Graham, 
abounding in free gold precipitated next the soft 
slate ; Cherokee, with its belts of iron, limestone, 
marble, and steatite, and its mines of gold, lead, 
silver, and mineral paint. The remaining two are 
Clay, in which gold, corundum, mica, asbestos, soap- 
stone, and many gems are found ; and Macon, with 
its ores of copper and its mines of corundum, mica, 
asbestos, graphite, limestone, and a large variety of 


precious stones. These are the most abundant min- 
erals of this district. Associated with them are 
many others belonging to the curiosities of geology, 
but without commercial value. Iron is much more 
abundant than any other of the useful metals, but 
gold is much more widely disseminated. .... In a 
former letter some reference was made to the timbers 
of this country. An extended tour among these 
mountains since then has more than confirmed my 
opinion of the extent and value of these forests. I 
have seen colossal pines, chestnuts, and oaks ; hick- 
ory, maple, and beech trees four feet in diameter, and 
poplars thirty-six feet in circumference. There are 
spots in these mountains where the wild cherry 
attains a diameter of six feet and the sassafras four. 
The yellow locust also grows to be a large tree. A 
log of it lying across a branch where it has been used 
as a foot log the last thirty years seemed to be as 
sound at the heart as when it was felled. Persim- 
mons and dogwoods large enough for shuttle blocks 
are to be seen near all the streams. The local con- 
sumption of timber is inappreciable except where 
land is cleared for cultivation; then the wasteful 
practice of girdling and subsequent burning is em- 
ployed. When track-laying begins, cross ties will be 
in demand. A market will be opened for timber 
suitable for trestles and bridges, and the work of 
forest destruction will be fairly inaugurated. When 
the road is completed, iron furnaces will be built and 
charcoal pits started. The bark of the chestnut and 


oak will be sent to the Chattanooga tannery, the 
hickory will be turned into spokes and tool handles, 
and the poplar sawed into planks. At present prices, 
and with the certainty of an early demand, no more 
profitable investment offers for idle capital than the 
forest land contiguous to these railroads in Swain 
and Cherokee counties. I have not seen a tract on 
the line indicated that will not be worth at least 
double its cost within the next two years, and many 
of them will bring a much higher percentage, because 
of their location and their adaptation to tillage.— 
Mr. Pardee, Editor New Haven {Conn.} Palladium. 

Mitchell. (250 sq. miles.)— Bakersville, Sept. 
8, 1882. — We have in this county the following kinds 
of timber of importance : White oak, walnut, poplar, 
ash, hickory, cherry and white pine. The latter ex- 
clusively in the eastern part of the county. The 
greater part of the county is timber land. The acre- 
age of the different kinds would be in about the fol- 
lowing order : first, white oak ; second, white pine ; 
third, poplar ; fourth, ash ; fifth, hickory : sixth, wal- 
nut ; seventh, cherry. — J. W. B. 

Nash. (525 sq. miles.)— Nash County, Sept. 11, 
1882. — Northern and western portions of Nash : black, 
post, Spanish and white oaks, short-leaf pine. East- 
ern and Southern parts: long-leaf pine. Low lands : 
cypress, gum, poplar and maple — undergrowth, dog- 
wood, principally. I have no means to ascertain the 
wooded acreage. It is very different in different por- 
tions. Generally about one-fourth to one-half under 


fence, except in large tracts, then a much less per 
cent, under fence. Small tracts more under fence. 
The remainder is in old worn-out fields with the 
original growth about half and half. In some sec- 
tions large bodies in original growth ; some of oaks 
and some of pine ; but every year the acreage under 
fence is rapidly increasing and land rising in value. — 
J. W. B. 

New Hanover, Pender, Duplin, Wayne, Wil- 
son, Edgecombe, Nash, Halifax. (Area, 4,360 sq. 
miles.) Route of Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. — 
Wilmington, Sept. 8, 1882. — The prevailing growth 
of timber from Wilmington to the Neuse river is 
long-leaf pine on the high lands, slash pine, with a 
sprinkling of scrub gum and maple, on the flats or 
low lands, with a little white oak. On the higher 
ridges there is a little red oak. The long-leaf pine in 
the neighborhood of the railroad has been used for tur- 
pentine and tar, and most of the oak timber has been 
gotten for staves. In the swamps there is a great deal 
of black gum, sweet gum, maple, ash and hickory, 
some little oak, the greater part being black gum, with 
occasional low places of cypress. Very little walnut. 

The same may be said from Neuse river to Fishing 
Creek, with an increased growth of red oak and hick- 
ory. Most of the long-leaf pine has, like the lower 
part, been exhausted. From Enfield to Weldon is 
short-leaf pine, in the swamps a good deal of beech, 
papaw, gum, and a considerable amount of small oak 
and hickory. 


I understand that on the west side of the road from 
Wilmington to Goldsboro, after a few miles, there are 
large quantities of valuable pine which has been bled 
for turpentine, and after you pass Goldsboro a great 
deal of very valuable timber a few miles from the 
road (long-leaf pine). 

^ As soon as you strike the red lands in Wilson, 
Nash and Halifax, you find considerable quantities of 
oak. Running from Fishing Creek in the direction 
of Raleigh there is a very large belt of long-leaf pine 
of first-class quality, varying from 3 to 6 or 8 miles 
wide, running in the direction of Raleigh. When it 
reaches the Little River country it seems to run in a 
direction further south, passing below Clayton, thence 
through the State, passing the lower edge of Wake 
and through Johnston county, through the most of 
Harnett, Cumberland, eastern part of Richmond and 
Robeson, being a great deal of valuable saw-mill tim- 
ber, some of which has been bled, some not. How 
far the line goes west of this I do not know, but my 
recent explorations of the line from Wilson to Shoe 
Heel show a great deal of valuable pine timber and 
some valuable white oak. 

The belt of timber running from Fishing Creek up 
towards Peach Tree, on towards Watson's Mill on 
the Neuse, is one of the finest sections of timber I 

In the Scotland Neck country, in the dividing ridoe 
between Beach Swamp and the waters of the Roa- 
noke, thence continued on to a point between Tarboro 


and Williamston, there is another valuable belt of 
long-leaf pine timber. 

On the Roanoke there are localities in which young 
walnut seems to spring up along the hedge rows as 
old-Held pine does in other localities. I judge from 
the manner in which it springs up that it could be 
grown with ease in this district. Also in many other 
sections walnut could be grown. 

It is not in my power to give you the wood acreage 
and the acreage covered by prevailing species. You 
will find the timber indicated more by geological for- 
mation. As soon as you get into red or rocky lands the 
long-leaf pine disappears, and oak and hickorj^ take its 
place. As you pass the Granite Falls there are gum 
swamps and cypress sw r amps. A description of one is 
a description of all. A description of one section of 
long-leaf pine country is nearly a description of all. 

The long-leaf pine extends above the line of Gran- 
ite Falls on Fishing Creek, Neuse River, Smiley *s 
Falls, and the Falls in the Yadkin, varying at different 
points. Not a great deal of long-leaf pine in the 
secondary formation — it is principally confined to the 
tertiary. The various river bottoms of the Neuse, 
the Cape Fear, the Tar and the Roanoke, never had 
long-leaf pine on them. This soil seems to have been 
made from settlings from the up country. What 
there is in the tertiary formation that produces long- 
leaf pine, and what there is in the secondary forma- 
tion that precludes its growth except on the ridges, I 
cannot tell. — R. R. B. 


Northampton. (525 sq. miles.) — Rich Square, 
Sept. 7, 1882. — We have here almost every tree 
known, but principal growth is pine and oak on the 
high lands, with gum and cypress in the swamps. 
The hills or high lands are also interspersed with 
hickory, walnut, dogwood, and maple, and many 
other varieties in less quantity. I suppose one half 
the county is in forests, and one half that is thickly 
set in long-leaf pine. In the lower end of the county 
we have large quantities of the various kinds of oak 
and hickory, some walnut, sap pine (known as short- 
leaf), maple in abundance, etc. Then there are three 
large swamps in or partly in the county, which 
abound in magnificent cypress trees and the different 
kinds of gum. — J. C. J. 

Orange. (675 sq. miles.) — Hillsboro, Sept. 8, 
1882. — Our forest timbers are oak^ hickory, gum, 
cedar, pine, elm, maple, walnut, sycamore, beech, 
birch. The prevailing growth is oak. One third of 
Orange is in forest, mostly oak. — J. W. 

Onslow. (725 sq. miles.) — Richlands, Aug. 22, 
1882. — The long-leaf pines are the principal growth. 
There is a large quantity of waste or barren poor 
piney woodland, interspersed with strips of pocoson 
which have cypress and juniper. On the rivers and 
creeks are fine poplar, dogwood, holly, beech, maple, 
and sweet gum. The old fields are covered with 
spruce or short-straw pines. Elm, white oak, red 
oak, and hickory abound in the swamps and low 
ground, and the plantations have on their edges per- 


simmon trees, plum and mulberry. There are some 
walnut trees, on the farms principally, and a few in 
the woods. There is at least sixty per cent, of the 
acreage of forest in the pine woods, — in many places 
splendid timber of the yellow long-leaf pine for saw- 
mills. The cedar tree also is interspersed all over 
the county, and may be found in the swamps and on 
plantations. Ash of the finest quality and in great 
abundance prevails in the low grounds and on the 
creeks and rivers, with a large quantity of sugar 
maple. New River, in Onslow, has timber in abun- 
dance on it, and steam saw-mills would do a good 
business ; could saw pine, cedar, gum, juniper, oak, 
ash, hickory, holly, beech, dogwood. There is an 
abundance of willow in the low grounds. — J. H. F. 

Pamlico. (875 sq. miles.) — Stonewall, Sept. 1, 
1882. — We have all kinds of trees in our forest that 
are known in the State except chestnut. The pre- 
vailing growth is on our outlands, long and short 
straw pine, with oak (red and white), hickory, holly, 
etc. ; and in the swamp, yellow poplar, sweet and 
black gum, ash, juniper, and the over-cup and chest- 
nut oak, etc. The wooded acreage of our county is 
at least nine-tenths of the whole. — J. S. L. 

Pasquotank. (240 sq. miles.) — Elizabeth City, 
Aug. 30, 1882. — There are two distinct classes of 
timber in north-eastern North Carolina — swamp tim- 
ber and upland timber. The most valuable swamp 
timber is juniper and cypress, vast quantities of 
which have been and are still being cut and carried 



to market. Most of it is manufactured out of the 
State. The prevailing growth on the highlands is 
pine. Immense quantities of this have also been cut 
and moved out of the State to be manufactured, but 
no inconsiderable quantity is manufactured in the 
State. In this county there are about fifteen mills 
for the manufacture of pine lumber. There are large 
quantities of timber still standing on the low and 
high lands, great as has been the drain during the 
past fifteen years. We have an abundance of wood 
of different kinds— oak, maple, sweet gum, ash, hick- 
ory, holly, poplar, etc., on the uplands, and bay, 
black gum, laurel, etc., in the swamps. Nearly or 
quite one-half of the area east of Roanoke River in 
this State is still wild;, probably one-fourth of that 
whole territory is swampy and not susceptible of 
cultivation. — F. V. 

Pender. (917 sq. miles.) — Burgaw, Aug. 21, 
1882.— We have pine, oak, hickory, maple, sweet and 
black gum in abundance, and in several sections 
birch, willow, and walnut in quantities. The pre- 
vailing growth is long-leaf pine, oak, hickory, and 
maple. The wooded acreage is about two-thirds of 
the entire quantity. Number of acres in the county, 
353,794, two-thirds of which is wooded land. The 
long-leaf pine covers about one-third of entire num- 
ber of acres, or half of the wooded land, amounting 
to 117,931 acres. The other half is about equally 
divided in the other growths, such as hickory, zum, 
etc.— W. T. E. 


Perquimans. (225 sq. miles.) — Hertford, Sept. 
29, 1882. — We have in this eonnty pine, cypress, 
juniper, gums, oak, ash, beech, with a sprinkling of 
hickory, walnut, maple, dogwood, holly, and poplar. 
Long-leaf pine is the prevailing growth of the high 
lands, and cypress and juniper of the swamp lands. 
Our pine lands have been in a large measure denuded 
of late years ; 400,000,000 feet of pine timber have 
been carried from this county to Norfolk and Balti- 
more in the log in the last ten years. There still 
remain about 10,000 acres uncut of pine, and about 
the same quantity of cypress and juniper. — T. G. S. 

Person. (400 sq. miles.) — Winstead, Sept. 20, 
1882. — We have in our original forest in this county 
all of the oaks, hickory, short-leaf pine, poplar, some 
walnut, beech, birch, sweet and black gum, sour- 
wood, dogwood, etc. Our second growth consists 
mainly of pine, the gums, persimmon, elm, etc. This 
county is twenty miles square, and I suppose the 
original wooded acreage to be one-eighth of the 
whole; the second growth, one-half of the whole. 
Original growth divided about as follows : pine, one- 
fourth ; oak, one-third ; hickory, one-eighth ; the re- 
mainder being poplar, beech, birch, walnut, etc. ; the 
second growth mainly pine, which makes fine build- 
ing material, etc. — A. J. H. 

Pitt. (825 sq. miles.)— Pitt County, Oct. 16, 1882. 
— The kinds of timber are pine, cypress, oak, gum, 
poplar ; the prevailing growth, pine and cypress. The 
wooded acreage I can only estimate from the lands 



under my control — 8,000 acres, divided into three 
distinct farms. One-fourth is cleared ; three-fourths 
in woods. Of the wood, one-half, perhaps three- 
fourths, is pine. — J. H. S. 

Polk. (300 sq. miles.) — Lynn, Aug. 28, 1882.— 
Polk County is rich in timber. Her lands on the 
south side of the mountains are very fine. On all 
low and flat lands, native short-leaf pine predomi- 
nates ; some oak and hickory. On the mountain 
sides we have fine walnut, ash, chestnut, poplar, 
maple, locust, buckeye. One-half of the county is 
mountain or fine kinds of wood. One fourth of the 
land in Polk is cut off and cleared. — D. B. M. 

Randolph. (728 sq. miles.) — Ashboro, Sept. 12, 
1882. — Kinds of timber are oak, pine, hickory, dog- 
wood, cedar, maple, gum, walnut, ash. The prevail- 
ing growth is oak and short-leaf pine. Wooded acre- 
age, two-thirds of the county. About five-sixths of 
the wooded acreage is covered by oak and pine in 
very nearly equal proportions. The northern part of 
the county is chiefly oak, and in the southern part 
pine prevails. — J. A. B. 

Richmond. (875 sq. miles.) — Rockingham, Aug. 
25, 1882. — I estimate the area, in acres, as 500,000. 
Of this, probably 160,000 are devoted to agriculture. 
Nine-tenths of the original growth was long-leafed 
pine. Indeed all the county, except a narrow strip 
on the Pee Dee — in all not over sixty square miles — 
was of that species. In that small territory, and in 
the immediate vicinity of the streams which flow into 


that river, there is still left some oak and hickory, 
but not enough for commercial purposes. It may be 
said, therefore, that our only timber in excess of 
local demand is the long-leafed pine. Most of this — 
say nine-tenths — has been boxed for turpentine, and 
thus to some extent damaged in its timber and lum- 
ber qualities. We have yet, especially off the line 
of the railroads, enough to make hundreds of millions 
of feet. The best and most extensive body of long- 
leafed pine, within my knowledge, is in Montgomery 
County, too far yet from transportation to be of much 
commercial value. — W. L. S. 

Rowan. (495 sq. miles.) — Salisbury, Aug. 21, 
1882. — We have in our forests oak of all kinds, hick- 
ory, short-leaf pine, ash, black walnut, poplar, soft 
maple, elm. The prevailing growths are post, red, 
and Spanish oak ; plenty of short-leaf pine for home 
use ; other kinds of timber mixed very generally ; 
black walnut and hickory in abundance. One-third 
to one-fourth of the county is in timber, of which the 
different kinds of oak will make from one-half to two- 
thirds ; pine, one-half of the balance. — L. B. 

Rockingham. (550 sq. miles.) — Leaksville, Sept. 
9, 1882. — Our county abounds in oak, pine(short-leaf), 
hickory, walnut and dogwood. One-third of the 
county is in cultivation ; one-third in original forest ; 
one-third waste land, being rapidly improved by old- 
field pine.— J. P. D. 

Robeson. (1150 sq. miles.)— Shoe Heel, Sept. 25, 
1882. — The prevailing growth of our forests is long- 



leaf pine, both yellow and pitch pine. In our swamps 
(of which we have a considerable quantity) black 
gum and cypress prevail, w r ith some oak and ash. 
The large timber accessible to the navigable streams 
and railroads has been cut off, but there is still a 
very large amount of timber suitable for lumber all 
over the county. There are many large areas of large 
pine timber remote from the streams and railroads 
yet untouched, that will, when we have railroad fa- 
cilities, afford an immense amount of timber and 
lumber. — M. M. 

Rutherford. (475 square miles.) — Island* Ford, 
Sept. 11, 1882. — We have in this county white oak, 
red oak, black oak, post oak, live oak, chestnut oak, 
in fact nearly all the oaks ; two kinds of hickory — 
white and the common hickory, black walnut, short- 
leaf or yellow pine and (as fine as you ever saw and a 
plenty of it) hemlock near the mountains, poplar, ash, 
birch, beech, locust. About three-fourths of the 
acreage of the county is in timber yet. — J. L. M. 

Sampson. (850 sq. miles.) — Clinton, Oct. 20, 
1882. — The kinds of timber are long and short-leaf 
pine ; water, red, Spanish, white, black-jack oaks ; 
hickory, poplar, gum — sweet and black, dogwood, 
persimmon, cedar, elm, juniper, cypress, walnut. The 
prevailing growth is long-leaf pine. The wooded 
acreage about 65 per cent., and about the same per 
cent, of that covered by long-leaf pine. — E. T. B. 

Surry. (500 sq. miles.) Elkin, Sept. 11, 1882. 
The prevailing growth is white, red, black, Spanish 


and chestnut oaks, yellow or short-leaf pine, ash, wal- 
nut, hickory, beech, birch, mahogany, chestnut, ma- 
ple, poplar, etc. Wooded acreage is about three- 
fourths of the county, and one-half of whole county 
is in oaks, pine, hickory, etc. — R. R. G. 

Transylvania. (440 square miles.) — Zachaiy's, 
Sept, 14, 1882.— This county from north to south is 
34 miles ; from east to west, 29 miles. The valley of 
the French Broad is from one to five miles wide, and. 
about 20 miles long within this county. With the 
exception of said valley (and it has a great deal of 
young oak timber), the county is almost one unbroken 
forest. There is an abundance of the various kinds 
of oak, chestnut, hickory, poplar, white and spruce 
pine, and in some portions good yellow pine, some 
walnut, cherry, beech, mountain birch, locust (in 
abundance), linn, buckeye, etc., with all the various 
kinds of small timber peculiar to a ridge country. — 
J. Z. 

Tyrrell. (325 sq. miles.)— Tyrrell County, Oct. 
3, 1882.— Our forests are of long-leaf pine, oak, juni- 
per, gum, ash and cypress. The wooded acreage is 
at least 75 per cent., 50 per cent, of juniper and cy- 
press ; 25 per cent of pine and oak.— W. H. H. C. 

Wake. (1,050 sq. miles.)— Raleigh, Oct. 27, 1882. 
— A greater variety of timber trees are to be found 
in Wake County than in any other county in the 
State. In point of value the long-leaf pine comes first, 
covering at least one-third of the area of the county, 
and extending from the Johnston to the Chatham line. 


and from Harnett to within three miles of the City of 
Raleigh. Short-leaf pine is the prevailing growth in 
nearly every other part of the county. Cedar pine 
grows on Buffalo Creek, and cypress and juniper 
abound on Little River, Buffalo and Moccasin. Syc- 
amore, walnut, oak and hickory are the spontaneous 
growth of all parts of the county. Every known 
variety of oak is to be found in its borders. Large 
white oaks suitable for ship building are abundant 
on all the tributaries of the Cape Fear and the 
Haw. Every known variety of oak can be found in 
its borders. Hickory, black and red oak grow 

I was once riding in a park of three hundred acres 
belonging to an English member of Parliament ; I 
observed that all the oaks were post oaks, and so re- 
marked to him. He replied, "Oh! I can show you 
three varieties." I told him in my town in America 
I could point him out twenty varieties of red oak 
alone. This he evidently thought a mistake, and on 
my return I sent him twelve varieties of red oak 
acorns found in the yard of Dr Hogg and in Capitol 
Square. I sent in the same package, also, acorns of 
the chestnut and white oaks, and in acknowledging 
the receipt of the same he said : " The great variety 
of Quercus Rubra is marvellous, some of them must 
be hybrids, but the acorns of the chestnut and white 
oaks have attracted the most attention on account of 
size. I have divided them with the Earl of Ellesmere, 
who has caused them to be carefully planted." 


Many trees, such as olives, English walnuts and 
pecans, grow well in North Carolina. The pecan 
grows luxuriantly, and every farmer in the State 
ought to plant the nuts on his farm. They grow very 
vigorously in all parts of the State, and particularly 
so in the alluvial soil of the east, and every nut 
planted in November or December will germinate. 
The trees are much valued on the Mississippi for fat- 
tening hogs. I have a tree in my yard that at eigh- 
teen years of age bore five bushels of nuts. The 
nuts sell readily for twenty cents a pound, and as a 
crop for profit I think them well worthy of consid- 
eration. — R. B. H. 

Warren. (450 sq. miles.) — Ridge way, Sept. 9, 
1882. — The prevailing growths of our forests are 
pine (short-leafed), and oak (white, red, Spanish and 
post) ; other growths are dogwood, hickory, gum, 
walnut, etc,. The acreage in forest is 55 per cent., as 
follows ; pine 30 per cent., oak 25 per cent. — P. H. A. 

Wayne. (550 sq. miles.)— Fremont, Sept. 6, 1882. 
— We have in this' county, oaks, hickory, gum, ash, 
mulberry, dogwood, walnut, etc., in small quantities; 
long-leaf and short-leaf pine the prevailing growth. 
About 40 per cent, of the county is woodland, 25 
per cent, in pine timber. — W. E. F. 

. Wilson. (350 sq. miles.) — Stantonsburg, Sept. 4, 
1882. — Our forests are principally pine, with oak, 
hickory, poplar, and some walnut. The prevailing 
growth is the long-leaf pine, except on Toisnot 
Swamp and Big Contentnea Creek, where are oak, 



hickory, poplar, and some short-leaf pine. There is 
also sweet gum, black gum, and dogwood, ash, etc. 
I think about sixty. per cent, of the county is in 
forest, forty per cent, cleared. Of the sixty per cent, 
in forest, the long-leaf pine covers seventy, and the 
other kinds mentioned the remainder. The timber 
sawed into lumber is ninety per cent. pine. The 
same remarks would apply to the counties of Greene, 
Wayne, a part of Nash, Johnston, and Edgecombe! 
except that the latter is about equally divided in 
forestry and cleared. — G. W. S. 

Watauga. (475 sq. miles.) — Shull's Mills, Aug. 
-31, 1882.— The forests of Watauga County are very 
heavily wooded, and originally covered the whole 
surface except the rock cliffs on the mountains and 
the beds of the rivers. They now include about four- 
fifths of the acreage of the county. The prevailing 
growths are oak, chestnut, poplar, hickory, maple* 
sugar tree (or sugar maple), hemlock (or spruce' 
pine), white pine, cherry, ash, linden, cucumber, 
buckeye, gum, birch (or mountain mahogany), beech, 
walnut, sour-wood, dogwood, etc. The first eight 
are the most abundant. All the forest growths of 
the county are so mixed together that I cannot give 
a reliable estimate of the acreage of each. The pre- 
vailing growth depends very much on the exposure 
and elevation of the surface, and the surface is so 
varied that almost every square mile of the county 
has a considerable variety of elevation and exposure, 
and consequently of prevailing growths of timber 


on the different portions of it. Since the railroad 
reached Cranberry the lumbermen have invaded the 
county, and secured most of the cherry trees at al- 
most nominal prices. But there will be enough val- 
uable timber of many kinds in the county to furnish 
heavy railroad freights for many years. — W. W. L. 

Wayne, Johnston, Wake, Durham, Orange, 
Alamance, Guilford, Davidson, Rowan, Ca- 
barrus, Mecklenburg. (Area, 6,351 sq. miles.) 
Route of the North Carolina Railroad. — N. C. R. R., 
Sept. 25, 1882. — Beginning at Goldsboro, the upper 
edge of Wayne, through Johnston to the lower edge 
of Wake County, you will find the long-leaf pine to 
be the prevailing species of timber on the uplands, 
mixed with some oak and hickory, mostly red oak 
and Spanish oak. On the rivers and creeks you will 
find it more extensively grown with white oak, sweet 
gum, black* gum, poplar, and cypress of large %ize. 
Through this section about one-half the acreage is 
yet in forest, mostly of the original growths. Upon 
some of the uplands once in cultivation and since 
turned out, has grown up the old-field pine, which 
soon covers the lands with a thick growth of timber. 

From the lower edge of Wake County, through 
Durham County, to the lower edge of Orange County, 
you will find the white oak and post oak, mostly on 
uplands, to be the prevailing growth, mixed with 
what is termed the rosemary pine, with a sprinkling 
of the long-leaf pine, in some places as far up as sixty- 
five miles from Goldsboro. The rosemary pine ex- 


tends as far up as eighty miles from Golclsboro. On 
the uplands and on the rivers and creeks through 
this section you find it more extensively grown with 
poplar, sweet gum, maple, cypress, hickory, and some 
black walnut, ash, etc. The acreage in this section 
is about half in forest, mostly of the original growths. 
Dogwood and sour-wood grow very extensively in 
some parts of this section on the uplands, creek and 
river bottoms. 

From the lower edge of Orange County to the 
upper edge of Alamance County to Company Shops, 
you will find the post oak and white oak still in most 
places to be the prevailing species both on up and 
lower lands, mixed with red oak, black oak, hickory, 
ash, maple, sweet gum, walnut, dogwood, and sour- 
wood. Cedar grows somewhat in this section, though 
not generally of very large size. The acreage is not 
quitfc half in the original forest, the lands having 
been more extensively cleared, and the old-field pine 
not growing up so readily on these red lands as in 
more sandy sections. — W. P. R. 

Greensboro, October 14, 1882. — In Alamance 
County, west of Shops, the kinds of timber are oak, 
short-leaf pine, hickory, sweet and black gum, dog- 
wood, maple, and poplar. The prevailing growth is 
of oak and hickory. The wooded acreage is about 
one-half of the original entire acreage. The acreage 
covered by prevailing growth is about three-eighths 
of original entire acreage. 

In Guilford County the kinds of timber are oak, 


black jack, hickory, poplar, sweet and black gum, 
maple, and second growth pine. The prevailing 
growth, oak, black jack, hickory. The wooded acre- 
age is about three-eighths of the original acreage of 
forest. The acreage covered by prevailing growth 
is about one-fourth of the original acreage of forest. 

In Davidson County the kinds of timber are oak, 
black jack, short-leaf pine, hickory, gum (sweet and 
black), maple, elm, poplar, and dogwood. The pre- 
vailing growth, oak, short-leaf pine, and black jack. 
The wooded acreage, about one-half of the original 
forest acreage. The acreage covered by prevailing 
growth is about one-fourth of original acreage of 

In Rowan County the kinds of timber are oak, 
hickory, second growth pine, short-leaf pine, dog- 
wood, maple, sweet and black gum, poplar, and elm. 
The prevailing growth, oak and short-leaf pine* The 
wooded acreage is about one-fourth of original forest 
acreage. The acreage covered by prevailing growth 
is about one-eighth of original forest acreage. 

In Cabarrus County the kinds of timber are oak, 
short-leaf pine, hickory, second growth pine, dog- 
wood, maple, sweet and black gum, elm, poplar, and 
persimmon. The prevailing growth, short-leaf pine, 
oak, and second growth pine. The wooded acreage 
is about one-half of the original forest acreage. The 
acreage covered by prevailing growth is about one- 
fourth of original forest acreage. 

In Mecklenburg County, the kinds of timber are 


oak, black jack, and second growth pine. The pre- 
vailing growth, black jack and second growth pine. 
The wooded acreage is about one-fourth of original 
forest acreage. The acreage covered by prevailing 
growth is about one-eighth of the original forest 
acreage. — W. H. P. 

Wake, Chatham, Moore, Richmond. (Area, 
3,575 sq. miles.) — Route of Raleigh and Augusta Rail- y 
way. — Gary, Aug. 9, 1882. — Wake County. Kind 
of trees are pine, oak, hickory, gum, maple, poplar, 
and dogwood. The prevailing growth is about equally 
divided between pine and oak. Acres covered by 
the prevailing growth, about one-fourth. 

Chatham County. Kind of trees about the same 
as in Wake. Prevailing growth, pine, oak, and hick- 
ory. Acres covered by prevailing growth, about one- 

Moore County. Kind of trees, pine, a few oaks, 
and hickory ; gum, poplar, cypress, juniper, and black 
jack. Pine largely prevailing. Acres covered by 
prevailing growth, three-fourths. 

Richmond County. Kind of trees, oak, poplar, 
gum, cypress, juniper, black jack, and pine ; the last- 
named largely prevailing. Acres covered by pre- 
vailing growth, about two-thirds. — H. P. G. 

Union. (650 sq. miles.)— Monroe, Sept. 8, 1882.— 
Our forests abound in short-leaf pine, hickory, black, 
red, and white oak, with some walnut. The wooded 
acreage is about one-third of the county. — J. D. S. 

Vance. — Henderson, Aug. 25, 1882. — Pine (short- 



leaf), oak, hickory, poplar, gum, and dogwood in our 
forests. In original forest, about ten per cent, of 
the county ; in pine, twenty per cent. — E. G. B. 

Yadkin. (328 sq. miles.) — Huntsville, Sept. 4, 
1882. — The kinds of timber in our forests are prin- 
cipally white, black, post, red, and Spanish oak, hick- 
ory, pine, black and sweet gum, some maple and 
sycamore, some black walnut, poplar in abundance ; 
also ash, dogwood, sour-wood, and different varieties 
of elm. Oak is the prevailing growth. Fifty per 
cent, of the land is in woods. Worn-out lands are 
covered with old-field pine. Lands that were worn 
out thirty years ago, which were grown up in pine, 
are now growing up in oak, the pines dying out. 
Plenty of all kinds of timber named in this county 
for all purposes for which such timber is used. — T. L. 

Long -leaf Pine Supply. — Forestry Bulletin 
No. 8, from the United States Census Office, gives 
the amount of merchantable pine — Long-leaved Pine 

(Pinus Australis) — sta 

Bladen, . 



Columbus, . 

Cumberland, . 


Harnett, . 

Johnston, . 


iding in fifteen counties as 

. 288,000,000 feet 

141,000,000 « 

. 448,000,000 " 

288,000,000 " 

. 806,000,000 " 

21,000,000 " 

. 486,000,000 " 

563,000,000 " 

. 504,000,000 " 


New Hanover, . . 96,000,000 feet 

Onslow, .... 34,000,000 

Robeson, . . . 864,000,000 

Sampson, . . . 602,000,000 

Wake, . . . 48,000,000 

Wayne, .... 40,000,000 

Total, . . . 5,229,000,000 feet 


Farms of North Carolina, 





The State, . . . 



Alamance, . . . 
Alexander, .... 
Alleghany, . . . 



Beaufort, .... 
Bertie, .... 


Brunswick, .... 
Buncombe, .... 
Burke, .... 
Cabarrus, .... 
Caldwell, .... 
Camden, .... 



Catawba, .... 
Chatham, .... 
Cherokee, .... 
Chowan, .... 


Cleveland, .... 





• 97,680 


• 192,787 

































































































Craven, . . 


Currituck, . 

Dare, . 


Davie, . 

Duplin, . 





Gates, . 



Greene, . 


Halifax, . 





Hyde, . 

Iredell, . 



Jones, . 

Lenoir, . 












Moore, . . . 
Nash, . . 
New Hanover, 
Onslow, . . 
Orange, . . 
Pamlico, . . 
Person, . . 
Pitt, . . . 
Polk, . . . 
Randolph, . 
Rowan, . . 
Rutherford, . 
Stokes, . . 
Surry, . . . 
Swain, . . 
Tyrrell, . . , 
Union, . . 
Wake, . . , 
Warren, . . 
Washington, . 
Wayne, . . . 
Wilkes, . . 
Wilson, . . . 
Yadkin, . . 
Yancey, . . . 












































































Population of North Carolina. 

The following statement shows the population of 
each county in North Carolina, classified as white 
and colored, and also the number of males of 21 
years of age and over in each county, classified as 
native white, foreign white, and colored, according 
to the United States Census of 1880. 

In the co.lumn entitled " colored " are included 
the very few Chinese, Japanese, and Indians. 


Males of 21 years of age 
and over. 











The State 










































3 783 




































12,469 1 2,477 










































Mecklenburg. . .. 





New Hanover.. .. 
Northampton ... 





Males of 21 years of age 
and over. 









































































































































































































Males of 21 years 
and over. 

of age 




































































































































































Railroads of North Carolina, 

The forestry interest has latterly become so impor- 
tant* in this country, that (since this volume went to 
press) it has been suggested that some readers may 
wish to know something of the people who inhabit 
and to see for themselves the territory in which so 
great forest wealth has been permitted to remain ; 
where also the climate is excellent, the soil fertile, 
the mineral wealth inexhaustible, the water power 
unlimited. To this end, the information obtained 
from the Census Department in regard to the people 
and their occupations has been added to Part II. ; 
and Part III. compiled that those who wish may 
know existing facilities for travel and transportation. 

The State of North Carolina covers an area of 
52,286 square miles. Its land surface is 48,666 
square miles ; that under water (sounds and bays), 
3,620 square miles. Thirty railroads, 2,040 miles in 
length within the State, make sixty-two counties 
which they enter or traverse easy of access. Of the 
other thirty-four counties seventeen will soon be 
reached by roads now in process of construction. 
Nine hundred miles of inland steam navigation on 
the Cape Fear, Neuse, Tar, Roanoke and Chowan 
Rivers, and on the Sounds and Swamp Canals, add 
to the facilities for travel and transportation. 


On the very accurate map of North Carolina, pre- 
pared for Maury's excellent series of geographies 
(adopted by the State for use in its Public Schools), 
the several railroad routes are distinctly traced, and 
the University Publishing Company of New York, 
by which these geographies are issued, has kindly 
permitted the use of the plates from which* the 
accompanying map is printed. The traveller with 
the aid of this map and the following notes need have 
no difficulty in "finding his way" through North 
Carolina, or into any part of it which may invite 
his examination. Forty-eight hours of railroad travel 
will suffice to convey one from the most distant 
points of far New England to almost any county in 
North Carolina. 

Annexed is a list of the 



Asheville and Spartanburg, 

Atlanta and Charlotte Air-Line, 

Atlantic and North Carolina, 

Atlantic, Tennessee and Ohio, 

Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley, 

Carolina Central, 

Cheraw and VVadesboro, 

Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta, 

Chester and Lenoir, 

Danville, Mocksville and Southwes'n 

East Tennessee and Western N.C., 

Elizabeth City and Norfolk, 

Halifax and Scotland Neck, 

Jamesville and Washington, 

Milton and Sutherlin, 

North Carolina, 

Northwestern North Carolina, 

North Carolina Midland, 

Oxford and Henderson, 



Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line, 

Raleigh and Gaston, 


Hendersonville, N. C, and Spartan- 
burg, S. C. 
Charlotte, N. C, and Atlanta, Ga. 
Goldsboro and Morehead City. 
Charlotte and Statesville. 
Fayetteville and Gulf. 
Wilmington and Shelby. 
Cheraw, S.C., and Wadesboro, N.C. 
Charlotte, N. C, and Augusta, Ga. 
Lenoir, N. C, and Chester, S. C. 
Danville, Va., and Leaksville, N. C. 
Johnson C'y,Tenn.,and Cranberry,N.C. 
Edenton, N. C , and Norfolk, Va. 
Halifax and Hill's Ferry. 
Jamesville and Washington. 
Milton, N. C, and Sutherlin, Va. 
Goldsboro and Charlotte. 
Greensboro and Salem. 
Goldsboro and Smithfield. 
Oxford and Henderson. 
Petersburg, Va.. and Weldon, N. C. 
Greensboro, N. C, and Danville, Va. 
Raleigh and Hamlet. 
Raleigh and Weldon. 



Seaboard and Raleigh, Williamston and Tarboro. 

Seaboard and Roanoke, Portsmouth, Va., and Weldon, N. C. 

Tarboro Branch, Rocky Mount and Tarboro. 

University, University Station and Chapel Hill. 

Wilmington and Weldon, Wilmington and Weldon. 
Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta, Wilmington, N. C, and Columbia, S.C. 

Western North Carolina, Salisbury and Paint Rock. 

The Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad 
has its present terminus at Henderson ville, N. C. 
Twenty miles of track are yet to be laid to complete 
it to Asheville, where it will make connection with 
all the North Carolina Roads and with Roads to the 
north and west; at Spartanburg, S. C, it already 
connects with the through lines of travel. Its pres- 
ent completed length is 49 miles, passing from Spar- 
tanburg, S. C, into Polk and Henderson counties, N. 
C. The Richmond and Danville Company controls 
it, and the Asheville connection will soon be made. 

The Atlanta and Charlotte Air-Line Rail- 
road, 269 miles in length, reaches Charlotte, N. C, 
from Atlanta, Ga., through Cleveland, Gaston and 
Mecklenburg counties, N. C. At Charlotte, a thriv- 
ing railroad centre, the traveller finds railroad con- 
nections north, south, east and west. The Road is 
the property, by lease, of the Richmond and Danville 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, 
95 miles in length, passes from Morehead City (Beau- 
fort Harbor) on the Atlantic coast, through the 
counties of Carteret, Craven, Jones and Lenoir to 
the thriving town of Gorclsboro in Wayne county, 
where it connects with the great lines of railway 
north, south and west. 


The Atlantic, Tennessee and Ohio Railroad, 
47 miles long, connects Charlotte with the Western 
North Carolina Road at Statesville, passing through 
the northern half of Mecklenburg and the southern 
half of Iredell county. It is leased to the Richmond 
and Danville. 

The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad 
is in operation from Fayetteville, the prospering head 
of steam navigation on the Cape Fear River, to Gulf, 
Chatham County — a distance of 47 miles — passing 
through Cumberland, Harnett and Moore into Chat- 
ham. Its further route is graded and bridged from 
Gulf through Chatham and Randolph to Greensboro 
in Guilford county, 52 miles ; and is graded from 
Greensboro to Walnut Cove in Stokes County, 30 
miles beyond. The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 
Road also owns the graded route of the Fayetteville 
and Florence Road from Fayetteville to the South 
Carolina line, 48 miles. The whole route will be 
rapidly completed after a slight change in the charter, 
to be made by the Legislature in January, 1883, and 
when finished will pass from a point on the Carolina 
Central Railroad through the counties of Robeson, 
Cumberland, Harnett, Moore, Chatham, Randolph, 
Guilford, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, Yadkin, Wilkes, 
Caldwell and Mitchell. 

The Carolina Central Railway passes from 
Wilmington, the largest city of the State and a sea- 
port of great and growing foreign and domestic trade, 
242 miles to Shelby. It traverses the counties of 


New Hanover. Brunswick, Columbus, Bladen, Robe- 
son, Richmond, Anson, Union, Mecklenburg, Gaston, 
Lincoln and Cleveland. At Wilmington, it connects 
with roads leading north and south and with the Cape 
Fear River and Ocean steamers : at Hamlet with the 
Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line, which is under the 
same management ; at Wadesboro with the South 
Carolina Roads; and at Charlotte with roads in every 

The Cheraw and Wadesboro Road connects 
Anson county with the South Carolina Roads, and 
the Carolina Central at Wadesboro gives it an outlet 
to all parts of North Carolina. Its present length in 
North Carolina is 11 miles. Its projected northern 
terminus is at Salisbury, Rowan county. 

The Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta Rail- 
road is another of Charlotte's connections with the 
outside world. Its length is 191 miles, 14 of which 
are in Mecklenburg county. It is part of the Rich- 
mond and Danville System. 

The Chester and Lenoir is a narrow gauge 
railroad, at present 63 miles long, passing from Ches- 
ter, S. C, on the Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta 
Road, through Gaston and Lincoln counties, N. C, 
to Lincolnton. Twenty-seven miles remain to be 
built to its terminus at Lenoir, Caldwell county. 

The Danville. Mocksvllle and Southwest- 
ern Railroad is completed from Danville, Va., to 
Leaksville, Rockingham county, N. C. It is part of 
the North Carolina Extension of the Virginia Mid- 


land, is controlled by the Richmond and Danville, 
and will be completed across the State to its southern 
border at Charlotte. 

The East Tennessee and Western North 
Carolina Railroad, 34 miles long, connects the 
celebrated Cranberry mines in Mitchell county, N. 
C, with the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia 
Road, at Johnson City, Tennessee. ♦ 

The Elizabeth City and Norfolk Railroad is 
in operation for 75 miles, passing from Norfolk, Va., 
through Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, Perquimans 
and Chowan counties, N. C, to Edenton on the Al- 
bemarle Sound. The Road will probably be contin- 
ued across the State through the eastern counties. 
At present, Edenton's other connections are by in- 
land steam navigation on the rivers and sounds. 

The Halifax and Scotland Neck is a branch 
road from the Wilmington and Weldon at Halifax to 
Scotland Neck, Halifax county. Its length is 20 
miles and it connects with Roanoke River steamers 
for Norfolk, Baltimore, etc. 

The Jamesville and Washington Road, 29 
miles long, connects Jamesville, in Martin county, 
with inland and ocean navigation at Washington, 
Beaufort county. 

The Midland North Carolina Railroad, a 
road projected from Goldsboro to Salisbury, is in 
operation from Goldsboro, in Wayne county, to 
Smithficld, Johnston county, 22 miles. 

The Milton and Sutherlin Narrow Gauge Rail- 


road, 9 miles long, connects Milton, Caswell count}', 
with the Richmond and Danville Road at Sutherlin,Va. 

The North Carolina Railroad, 223 miles in 
length, passes from Goldsboro through Wayne, John- 
ston, Wake, Durham, Orange, Alamance, Guilford, 
Davidson, Rowan, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg, to Char- 
lotte. At Goldsboro it connects with the great lines 
of travel north and south by the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad ; at Raleigh by the Raleigh and 
Gaston (north) and the Raleigh and Augusta Air- 
Line (south) ; at Greensboro with the Richmond and 
Danville System by its junction with the Piedmont 
Road ; at Charlotte with the Carolina Central, east 
and west, and with the Richmond and Danville Roads, 
heretofore noted, going south and west. It also 
forms part of a line of completed road, 526 miles in 
length, reaching from the Atlantic coast at Morehead 
to Paint Rock on the western State line and to Pig- 
eon River in Haywood county, and traversing the 
twenty counties of Carteret, Craven, Jones, Lenoir, 
Wayne, Johnston, Wake, Durham, Orange, Alamance, 
Guilford, Davidson, Rowan, Iredell, Catawba, Burke, 
McDowell, Buncombe, Haywood, Madison. The 
Road is leased to the Richmond and Danville, which 
also owns the Road from Salisbury to Paint Rock 
and Pigeon River. 

The Northwestern North Carolina Road is 
a branch of the North Carolina Road, owned by the 
Richmond and Danville Road,and passing from the im- 
portant and .prosperous town of Greensboro, through 


Guilford and Forsyth, to the thriving manufacturing 
centre at Salem-Winston. Its length is 25 miles. 

The Oxford and Henderson Railroad is 13 
miles long. It runs from Henderson, the rapidly 
growing county seat of Vance, on the Raleigh and 
Gaston Road, to Oxford, the prosperous county town 
of Granville. 

The Piedmont Railroad, 49 miles, passes from 
Danville, Va., through Caswell, Rockingham and 
Guilford counties to Greensboro, where it makes con- 
nection with the whole system of North Carolina 
Roads. It is owned by the Richmond and Danville, 
and is part of one of the great through routes from 
north to south. 

The Petersburg Railroad, 63 miles long, passes 
from Virginia through Northampton county, N. C, 
to the noted railroad centre, Weldon, in Halifax 
county, where it connects with the Raleigh and Gas- 
ton and Wilmington and Weldon through routes. 

The Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line Railroad, 
99 miles in length, passes from Raleigh, the State 
Capital, through Wake, Chatham, Moore and Rich- 
mond counties, to Hamlet, where its connection with 
the Carolina Central (under the same management) 
makes a through route east and south by Wilming- 
ton and west and south by Charlotte. At Sanford, 
Moore county, it crosses the Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Road, thus connecting with Fayetteville and 
the river steamers on the Cape Fear. 

The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad is 98 miles 
long. It runs from Weldon through Halifax, War- 


ren, Vance, Franklin and Wake counties to Raleigh, 
where it connects with the Raleigh and Augusta 
(under the same management) and with the North 
Carolina Road east and west. At Weldon it con- 
nects with the Wilmington and Weldon, going south, 
and with the Petersburg Road and the Seaboard and 
Roanoke Road, going north. The last named is 
under the same management, which owns a line of 
travel from Baltimore to Wilmington and Charlotte. 

The Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad is 80 
miles long. Coming from Norfolk, Va., it passes 
through Northampton county, N. C, to Weldon, 
where it makes connection with the Wilmington and 
Weldon and Raleigh and Gaston Roads. 

The Seaboard and Raleigh Railroad is in op- 
eration for 45 miles, from Tarboro, through Edge- 
combe, Pitt and Martin counties, to Williamston on 
the Roanoke. At Williamston it finds deep water 
and steam navigation ; at Tarboro, railroad connec- 
tion with 

The Tarboro Branch, which passes through 
Edgecombe, 17 miles, to Rocky Mount on the Wil- 
mington and Weldon through line. 

The University Railroad, 11 miles long, is owned 
by the Richmond and Danville, and runs from Uni- 
versity Station on the North Carolina Railroad to the 
immensely valuable iron mines near the State Uni- 
versity at Chapel Hill, Orange county. 

The Western North Carolina Railroad, now 
the property of the Richmond and Danville, is in 
operation from Salisbury through Rowan, Iredell, 


Catawba, Burke, McDowell, Buncombe and Madison 
counties to Paint Rock— a distance of 189 miles. 
At Salisbury, the eastern terminus, it connects with 
the North Carolina Road; at Paint Rock with the 
East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Road. The 
Ducktown Branch is completed from Asheville to 
Pigeon River, Haywood county, and rapid progress 
is made in grading the remainder of the route through 
Jackson, Swain, Macon and Cherokee counties. 

The Wilmington and Weldon Railroad trav- 
erses the State from north to south. It passes, 163 
miles, from Weldon through Halifax, Nash, Edge- 
combe, Wilson, Wayne, Duplin, Pender and J^ew 
Hanover counties to Wilmington. It owns and ope- 
rates a branch road from Halifax to Scotland Neck, 
20 miles ; another from Rocky Mount to Tarboro, 17 
miles ; and is now locating a road from Wilson to 
Florence, S. C, which will pass through the North 
Carolina counties of Wilson, Johnston, Harnett, 
Cumberland and Robeson, and connect with river 
and rail at Fayetteville. This road connects at Wel- 
don with the Raleigh and Gaston, the Petersburg, 
and the Seaboard and Roanoke Roads ; at Goldsboro 
with the North Carolina and the Atlantic and North 
Carolina; at Wilmington with the Cape Fear River and 
Ocean steamers, the Carolina Central Railway, and 

The Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta 
Railroad, which is 189 miles in length and part of 
the gre^l Seaboard through route. It passes from 
Wilmington into South Carolina through Brunswick 
and Columbus counties, N. C. , 





kind permission of the Dnitobbitt Publishing Company, 19 Murray Street, New York, from the plates prepared 
for the excellent (Maury's) Suite (ieograpli\. 

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